William Hodos

Psychology University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 
Visual system, comparative neuroanatomy
"William Hodos"

The early part of my scientific career was devoted to the study of motivation in animals. In the 1970s, I developed an interest in the excellent vision of birds and how visual information is processed in the avian central nervous system. This led to a series of anatomical experiments to determine the central visual pathways in the nervous systems of birds and application of various behavioral psychophysical techniques to measure color vision, visual acuity, luminance differences, and spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity in pigeons, quail, hawks, owls, starlings, and other birds. I have also carried out a number of studies of the physiological optics of the eyes of various birds. In addition to my research, I have scholarly interests in the evolution of the brain and the evolution of behavior, comparative neuroanatomy, and animal intelligence.

Cross-listing: Neurotree - PsychTree


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Joseph V. Brady grad student Walter Reed (Neurotree)
Elliot Valenstein grad student University of Michigan (Neurotree)
Walle J. H. Nauta post-doc MIT (Neurotree)


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Tatiana Pasternak grad student (Neurotree)
Toru Shimizu grad student 1984-1986 University of Maryland (Neurotree)
Mimi M. Ghim grad student 2003 University of Maryland (Neurotree)
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Ghim MM, Hodos W. (2006) Spatial contrast sensitivity of birds. Journal of Comparative Physiology. a, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology. 192: 523-34
Gaffney MF, Hodos W. (2003) The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Vision Research. 43: 2053-9
Hodos W, Potocki A, Ghim MM, et al. (2003) Temporal modulation of spatial contrast vision in pigeons (Columba livia). Vision Research. 43: 761-7
Hodos W, Ghim MM, Potocki A, et al. (2002) Contrast sensitivity in pigeons: a comparison of behavioral and pattern ERG methods. Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology. 104: 107-18
Hodos W, Miller RF, Ghim MM, et al. (1998) Visual acuity losses in pigeons with lesions of the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal that disrupt the adaptive regulation of choroidal blood flow. Visual Neuroscience. 15: 273-87
Chaves LM, Hodos W. (1998) Color reversal-learning deficits after tectofugal pathway lesions in the pigeon telencephalon. Behavioural Brain Research. 90: 1-12
Hodos W, Ghim MM, Miller RA, et al. (1997) Comparative analysis of contrast sensitivity Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 38: S634
Chaves LM, Hodos W, Güntürkün O. (1993) Color-reversal learning: effects after lesions of thalamic visual structures in pigeons. Visual Neuroscience. 10: 1099-107
Bingman VP, Hodos W. (1992) Visual performance of pigeons following hippocampal lesions. Behavioural Brain Research. 51: 203-9
Kurkjian ML, Hodos W. (1992) Age-dependent intensity-difference thresholds in pigeons. Vision Research. 32: 1249-52
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