Ernesto Freire - Publications

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 
General Biophysics, Biochemistry, Pharmacology

71 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2016 Schön A, Freire E. Enthalpy screen of drug candidates. Analytical Biochemistry. 513: 1-6. PMID 27567994 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2016.08.023  1
2016 Schön A, Freire E. Three easy pieces. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. 1860: 975-80. PMID 26679422 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.12.003  1
2016 Clarkson BR, Schön A, Freire E. Conformational stability and self-association equilibrium in biologics. Drug Discovery Today. 21: 342-7. PMID 26608889 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2015.11.007  1
2015 Chauhan J, Chen SE, Fenstermacher KJ, Naser-Tavakolian A, Reingewertz T, Salmo R, Lee C, Williams E, Raje M, Sundberg E, DeStefano JJ, Freire E, Fletcher S. Synthetic, structural mimetics of the β-hairpin flap of HIV-1 protease inhibit enzyme function. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. PMID 26474665 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.09.002  1
2015 Xu Q, Ensign LM, Boylan NJ, Schön A, Gong X, Yang JC, Lamb NW, Cai S, Yu T, Freire E, Hanes J. Impact of Surface Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Density on Biodegradable Nanoparticle Transport in Mucus ex Vivo and Distribution in Vivo. Acs Nano. 9: 9217-27. PMID 26301576 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b03876  1
2015 Schön A, Clarkson BR, Siles R, Ross P, Brown RK, Freire E. Denatured state aggregation parameters derived from concentration dependence of protein stability. Analytical Biochemistry. 488: 45-50. PMID 26239214 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2015.07.013  1
2015 Do Kwon Y, Pancera M, Acharya P, Georgiev IS, Crooks ET, Gorman J, Joyce MG, Guttman M, Ma X, Narpala S, Soto C, Terry DS, Yang Y, Zhou T, Ahlsen G, ... ... Freire E, et al. Crystal structure, conformational fixation and entry-related interactions of mature ligand-free HIV-1 Env. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 22: 522-31. PMID 26098315 DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.3051  1
2015 Richard J, Veillette M, Brassard N, Iyer SS, Roger M, Martin L, Pazgier M, Schön A, Freire E, Routy JP, Smith AB, Park J, Jones DM, Courter JR, Melillo BN, et al. CD4 mimetics sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112: E2687-94. PMID 25941367 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1506755112  1
2015 Velazquez-Campoy A, Leavitt SA, Freire E. Characterization of protein-protein interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 1278: 183-204. PMID 25859950 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2425-7_11  1
2015 Georgiev IS, Joyce MG, Yang Y, Sastry M, Zhang B, Baxa U, Chen RE, Druz A, Lees CR, Narpala S, Schön A, Van Galen J, Chuang GY, Gorman J, Harned A, ... ... Freire E, et al. Single-Chain Soluble BG505.SOSIP gp140 Trimers as Structural and Antigenic Mimics of Mature Closed HIV-1 Env. Journal of Virology. 89: 5318-29. PMID 25740988 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03451-14  1
2014 Madani N, Princiotto AM, Schön A, LaLonde J, Feng Y, Freire E, Park J, Courter JR, Jones DM, Robinson J, Liao HX, Moody AA, Permar S, Haynes B, Smith AB, et al. CD4-mimetic small molecules sensitize human immunodeficiency virus to vaccine-elicited antibodies Journal of Virology. 88: 6542-6555. PMID 24696475 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00540-14  1
2014 Miura T, Hidaka K, Azai Y, Kashimoto K, Kawasaki Y, Chen SE, de Freitas RF, Freire E, Kiso Y. Optimization of plasmepsin inhibitor by focusing on similar structural feature with chloroquine to avoid drug-resistant mechanism of Plasmodium falciparum. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 24: 1698-701. PMID 24631188 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.02.051  1
2014 Courter JR, Madani N, Sodroski J, Schön A, Freire E, Kwong PD, Hendrickson WA, Chaiken IM, LaLonde JM, Smith AB. Structure-based design, synthesis and validation of CD4-mimetic small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry: conversion of a viral entry agonist to an antagonist. Accounts of Chemical Research. 47: 1228-37. PMID 24502450 DOI: 10.1021/ar4002735  1
2014 Evans SL, Schön A, Gao Q, Han X, Zhou X, Freire E, Yu XF. HIV-1 Vif N-terminal motif is required for recruitment of Cul5 to suppress APOBEC3. Retrovirology. 11: 4. PMID 24422669 DOI: 10.1186/1742-4690-11-4  1
2013 Afanador GA, Muench SP, McPhillie M, Fomovska A, Schön A, Zhou Y, Cheng G, Stec J, Freundlich JS, Shieh HM, Anderson JW, Jacobus DP, Fidock DA, Kozikowski AP, Fishwick CW, ... ... Freire E, et al. Discrimination of potent inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by a thermal shift assay. Biochemistry. 52: 9155-66. PMID 24295325 DOI: 10.1021/bi400945y  1
2013 Wang S, Ketcham SA, Schön A, Goodman B, Wang Y, Yates J, Freire E, Schroer TA, Zheng Y. Nudel/NudE and Lis1 promote dynein and dynactin interaction in the context of spindle morphogenesis. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24: 3522-33. PMID 24025714 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E13-05-0283  1
2013 Schön A, Brown RK, Hutchins BM, Freire E. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift. Analytical Biochemistry. 443: 52-7. PMID 23994566 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2013.08.015  1
2013 Thanigaimalai P, Konno S, Yamamoto T, Koiwai Y, Taguchi A, Takayama K, Yakushiji F, Akaji K, Chen SE, Naser-Tavakolian A, Schön A, Freire E, Hayashi Y. Development of potent dipeptide-type SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitors with novel P3 scaffolds: design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and docking studies. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 68: 372-84. PMID 23994330 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.07.037  1
2013 Freire E, Schön A, Hutchins BM, Brown RK. Chemical denaturation as a tool in the formulation optimization of biologics. Drug Discovery Today. 18: 1007-13. PMID 23796912 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2013.06.005  1
2013 Thanigaimalai P, Konno S, Yamamoto T, Koiwai Y, Taguchi A, Takayama K, Yakushiji F, Akaji K, Kiso Y, Kawasaki Y, Chen SE, Naser-Tavakolian A, Schön A, Freire E, Hayashi Y. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel dipeptide-type SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitors: structure-activity relationship study. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 65: 436-47. PMID 23747811 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2013.05.005  1
2013 Konno S, Thanigaimalai P, Yamamoto T, Nakada K, Kakiuchi R, Takayama K, Yamazaki Y, Yakushiji F, Akaji K, Kiso Y, Kawasaki Y, Chen SE, Freire E, Hayashi Y. Design and synthesis of new tripeptide-type SARS-CoV 3CL protease inhibitors containing an electrophilic arylketone moiety. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 21: 412-24. PMID 23245752 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.11.017  1
2013 Liu Y, Schön A, Freire E. Optimization of CD4/gp120 inhibitors by thermodynamic-guided alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 81: 72-8. PMID 23066870 DOI: 10.1111/cbdd.12075  1
2013 Brown R, Freire E, Hutchins B. Optimizing biologics stability testing Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News. 33: 26-27. DOI: 10.1089/gen.33.16.11  1
2013 LaLonde JM, Le-Khac M, Jones DM, Courter JR, Park J, Schön A, Princiotto AM, Wu X, Mascola JR, Freire E, Sodroski J, Madani N, Hendrickson WA, Smith AB. Structure-based design and synthesis of an HIV-1 entry inhibitor exploiting X-ray and thermodynamic characterization Acs Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 4: 338-343. DOI: 10.1021/ml300407y  1
2012 Resendiz MJ, Schön A, Freire E, Greenberg MM. Photochemical control of RNA structure by disrupting π-stacking. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134: 12478-81. PMID 22827464 DOI: 10.1021/ja306304w  1
2012 Kortagere S, Madani N, Mankowski MK, Schön A, Zentner I, Swaminathan G, Princiotto A, Anthony K, Oza A, Sierra LJ, Passic SR, Wang X, Jones DM, Stavale E, Krebs FC, ... ... Freire E, et al. Inhibiting early-stage events in HIV-1 replication by small-molecule targeting of the HIV-1 capsid. Journal of Virology. 86: 8472-81. PMID 22647699 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.05006-11  1
2012 Lalonde JM, Kwon YD, Jones DM, Sun AW, Courter JR, Soeta T, Kobayashi T, Princiotto AM, Wu X, Schön A, Freire E, Kwong PD, Mascola JR, Sodroski J, Madani N, et al. Structure-based design, synthesis, and characterization of dual hotspot small-molecule HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 55: 4382-4396. PMID 22497421 DOI: 10.1021/jm300265j  1
2011 Kawasaki Y, Freire E. Finding a better path to drug selectivity. Drug Discovery Today. 16: 985-90. PMID 21839183 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2011.07.010  0.64
2011 Siles R, Kawasaki Y, Ross P, Freire E. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of triazole/tetrazole-containing sulfonamides against thrombin and related serine proteases. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 21: 5305-9. PMID 21807511 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.07.023  0.64
2011 Gift SK, Zentner IJ, Schön A, McFadden K, Umashankara M, Rajagopal S, Contarino M, Duffy C, Courter JR, Zhang MY, Gershoni JM, Cocklin S, Dimitrov DS, Smith AB, Freire E, et al. Conformational and structural features of HIV-1 gp120 underlying the dual receptor antagonism by cross-reactive neutralizing antibody m18. Biochemistry. 50: 2756-68. PMID 21351734 DOI: 10.1021/bi101160r  1
2011 Schön A, Madani N, Smith AB, Lalonde JM, Freire E. Some Binding-Related Drug Properties are Dependent on Thermodynamic Signature Chemical Biology and Drug Design. 77: 161-165. PMID 21288305 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.01075.x  1
2011 Lalonde JM, Elban MA, Courter JR, Sugawara A, Soeta T, Madani N, Princiotto AM, Kwon YD, Kwong PD, Schön A, Freire E, Sodroski J, Smith AB. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of CD4-gp120 binding based on virtual screening Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry. 19: 91-101. PMID 21169023 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.11.049  1
2010 Umashankara M, McFadden K, Zentner I, Schön A, Rajagopal S, Tuzer F, Kuriakose SA, Contarino M, Lalonde J, Freire E, Chaiken I. The active core in a triazole peptide dual-site antagonist of HIV-1 gp120 Chemmedchem. 5: 1871-1879. PMID 20677318 DOI: 10.1002/cmdc.201000222  1
2010 Miura T, Hidaka K, Uemura T, Kashimoto K, Hori Y, Kawasaki Y, Ruben AJ, Freire E, Kimura T, Kiso Y. Improvement of both plasmepsin inhibitory activity and antimalarial activity by 2-aminoethylamino substitution. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 20: 4836-9. PMID 20634066 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.06.099  1
2010 Barrila J, Gabelli SB, Bacha U, Amzel LM, Freire E. Mutation of Asn28 disrupts the dimerization and enzymatic activity of SARS 3CL(pro) . Biochemistry. 49: 4308-17. PMID 20420403 DOI: 10.1021/bi1002585  1
2010 Brower ET, Schön A, Freire E. Naturally occurring variability in the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 and development of cell entry inhibitors. Biochemistry. 49: 2359-67. PMID 20166763 DOI: 10.1021/bi1000933  1
2010 Kawasaki Y, Chufan EE, Lafont V, Hidaka K, Kiso Y, Mario Amzel L, Freire E. How much binding affinity can be gained by filling a cavity? Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 75: 143-51. PMID 20028396 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00921.x  0.64
2010 Lee HS, Contarino M, Umashankara M, Schön A, Freire E, Smith AB, Chaiken IM, Penn LS. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to monitor ligand-induced conformational rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 396: 1143-52. PMID 20016882 DOI: 10.1007/s00216-009-3313-8  1
2009 Ma C, Polishchuk AL, Ohigashi Y, Stouffer AL, Schön A, Magavern E, Jing X, Lear JD, Freire E, Lamb RA, DeGrado WF, Pinto LH. Identification of the functional core of the influenza A virus A/M2 proton-selective ion channel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106: 12283-8. PMID 19590009 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0905726106  1
2009 Brower ET, Schön A, Klein JC, Freire E. Binding thermodynamics of the N-terminal peptide of the CCR5 coreceptor to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Biochemistry. 48: 779-85. PMID 19170639 DOI: 10.1021/bi8021476  1
2008 Madani N, Schön A, Princiotto AM, Lalonde JM, Courter JR, Soeta T, Ng D, Wang L, Brower ET, Xiang SH, Kwon YD, Huang CC, Wyatt R, Kwong PD, Freire E, et al. Small-molecule CD4 mimics interact with a highly conserved pocket on HIV-1 gp120. Structure (London, England : 1993). 16: 1689-701. PMID 19000821 DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2008.09.005  1
2008 Hidaka K, Kimura T, Ruben AJ, Uemura T, Kamiya M, Kiso A, Okamoto T, Tsuchiya Y, Hayashi Y, Freire E, Kiso Y. Antimalarial activity enhancement in hydroxymethylcarbonyl (HMC) isostere-based dipeptidomimetics targeting malarial aspartic protease plasmepsin. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 16: 10049-60. PMID 18952439 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2008.10.011  1
2008 Bacha U, Barrila J, Gabelli SB, Kiso Y, Mario Amzel L, Freire E. Development of broad-spectrum halomethyl ketone inhibitors against coronavirus main protease 3CL(pro). Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 72: 34-49. PMID 18611220 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2008.00679.x  1
2008 Gopi H, Umashankara M, Pirrone V, LaLonde J, Madani N, Tuzer F, Baxter S, Zentner I, Cocklin S, Jawanda N, Miller SR, Schön A, Klein JC, Freire E, Krebs FC, et al. Structural determinants for affinity enhancement of a dual antagonist peptide entry inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 51: 2638-2647. PMID 18402432 DOI: 10.1021/jm070814r  1
2008 Brower ET, Bacha UM, Kawasaki Y, Freire E. Inhibition of HIV-2 protease by HIV-1 protease inhibitors in clinical use. Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 71: 298-305. PMID 18312292 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2008.00647.x  1
2007 Lafont V, Armstrong AA, Ohtaka H, Kiso Y, Mario Amzel L, Freire E. Compensating enthalpic and entropic changes hinder binding affinity optimization. Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 69: 413-22. PMID 17581235 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2007.00519.x  1
2007 Hidaka K, Kimura T, Tsuchiya Y, Kamiya M, Ruben AJ, Freire E, Hayashi Y, Kiso Y. Additional interaction of allophenylnorstatine-containing tripeptidomimetics with malarial aspartic protease plasmepsin II. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 17: 3048-52. PMID 17400453 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.03.052  1
2006 Aguilar RC, Longhi SA, Shaw JD, Yeh LY, Kim S, Schön A, Freire E, Hsu A, McCormick WK, Watson HA, Wendland B. Epsin N-terminal homology domains perform an essential function regulating Cdc42 through binding Cdc42 GTPase-activating proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103: 4116-21. PMID 16537494 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0510513103  1
2006 Ruben AJ, Kiso Y, Freire E. Overcoming roadblocks in lead optimization: a thermodynamic perspective. Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 67: 2-4. PMID 16492143 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2005.00314.x  1
2005 Pancera M, Lebowitz J, Schön A, Zhu P, Freire E, Kwong PD, Roux KH, Sodroski J, Wyatt R. Soluble mimetics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral spikes produced by replacement of the native trimerization domain with a heterologous trimerization motif: characterization and ligand binding analysis. Journal of Virology. 79: 9954-69. PMID 16014956 DOI: 10.1128/JVI.79.15.9954-9969.2005  1
2004 Bacha U, Barrila J, Velazquez-Campoy A, Leavitt SA, Freire E. Identification of novel inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus main protease 3CLpro. Biochemistry. 43: 4906-12. PMID 15109248 DOI: 10.1021/bi0361766  1
2004 Vega S, Kang LW, Velazquez-Campoy A, Kiso Y, Amzel LM, Freire E. A structural and thermodynamic escape mechanism from a drug resistant mutation of the HIV-1 protease. Proteins. 55: 594-602. PMID 15103623 DOI: 10.1002/prot.20069  1
2004 Velazquez-Campoy A, Leavitt SA, Freire E. Characterization of protein-protein interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 261: 35-54. PMID 15064448 DOI: 10.1385/1-59259-762-9:035  1
2004 Si Z, Madani N, Cox JM, Chruma JJ, Klein JC, Schön A, Phan N, Wang L, Biorn AC, Cocklin S, Chaiken I, Freire E, Smith AB, Sodroski JG. Small-molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry block receptor-induced conformational changes in the viral envelope glycoproteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101: 5036-41. PMID 15051887 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0307953101  1
2004 Biorn AC, Cocklin S, Madani N, Si Z, Ivanovic T, Samanen J, Van Ryk DI, Pantophlet R, Burton DR, Freire E, Sodroski J, Chaiken IM. Mode of action for linear peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 gp120 interactions. Biochemistry. 43: 1928-38. PMID 14967033 DOI: 10.1021/bi035088i  1
2004 Leavitt SA, SchOn A, Klein JC, Manjappara U, Chaiken IM, Freire E. Interactions of HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Nef with cellular partners define a novel allosteric paradigm. Current Protein & Peptide Science. 5: 1-8. PMID 14965316 DOI: 10.2174/1389203043486955  0.52
2002 Kwong PD, Doyle ML, Casper DJ, Cicala C, Leavitt SA, Majeed S, Steenbeke TD, Venturi M, Chaiken I, Fung M, Katinger H, Parren PWIH, Robinson J, Van Ryk D, Wang L, ... ... Freire E, et al. HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites Nature. 420: 678-682. PMID 12478295 DOI: 10.1038/nature01188  1
2002 Luque I, Freire E. Structural parameterization of the binding enthalpy of small ligands. Proteins. 49: 181-90. PMID 12210999 DOI: 10.1002/prot.10208  0.36
2002 Velazquez-Campoy A, Vega S, Freire E. Amplification of the effects of drug resistance mutations by background polymorphisms in HIV-1 protease from African subtypes. Biochemistry. 41: 8613-9. PMID 12093278 DOI: 10.1021/bi020160i  1
2002 Dowd CS, Leavitt S, Babcock G, Godillot AP, Van Ryk D, Canziani GA, Sodroski J, Freire E, Chaiken IM. Beta-turn Phe in HIV-1 Env binding site of CD4 and CD4 mimetic miniprotein enhances Env binding affinity but is not required for activation of co-receptor/17b site. Biochemistry. 41: 7038-46. PMID 12033937 DOI: 10.1021/bi012168i  1
2002 Luque I, Leavitt SA, Freire E. The linkage between protein folding and functional cooperativity: two sides of the same coin? Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure. 31: 235-56. PMID 11988469 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.biophys.31.082901.134215  1
2002 Nezami A, Luque I, Kimura T, Kiso Y, Freire E. Identification and characterization of allophenylnorstatine-based inhibitors of plasmepsin II, an antimalarial target. Biochemistry. 41: 2273-80. PMID 11841219  0.36
1997 Hilser VJ, Freire E. The equilibrium ensemble of conformational states in staphylococcal nuclease Techniques in Protein Chemistry. 8: 767-781. DOI: 10.1016/S1080-8914(97)80075-0  1
1993 Xie D, Bhakuni V, Freire E. Are the molten globule and the unfolded states of apo-alpha-lactalbumin enthalpically equivalent? Journal of Molecular Biology. 232: 5-8. PMID 8331670 DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1993.1364  0.36
1993 Murphy KP, Freire E. Structural energetics of protein stability and folding cooperativity Pure and Applied Chemistry. 65: 1939-1946. DOI: 10.1351/pac199365091939  1
1988 Stearman RS, Frankel AD, Freire E, Liu BS, Pabo CO. Combining thermostable mutations increases the stability of lambda repressor. Biochemistry. 27: 7571-4. PMID 3061460 DOI: 10.1021/bi00419a059  1
1980 Biltonen RL, Freire E. Statistical thermodynamic analysis of the excess heat capacity function of macromolecular systems Pure and Applied Chemistry. 52: 419-431. DOI: 10.1351/pac198052020419  1
1978 Freire E, Biltonen RL. Statistical mechanical deconvolution of thermal transitions in macromolecules. III. Application to double‐stranded to single‐stranded transitions of nucleic acids Biopolymers. 17: 497-510. DOI: 10.1002/bip.1978.360170214  1
1978 Freire E, Biltonen RL. Statistical mechanical deconvolution of thermal transitions in macromolecules. II. General treatment of cooperative phenomena Biopolymers. 17: 481-496. DOI: 10.1002/bip.1978.360170213  1
1978 Freire E, Biltonen RL. Statistical mechanical deconvolution of thermal transitions in macromolecules. I. Theory and application to homogeneous systems Biopolymers. 17: 463-479. DOI: 10.1002/bip.1978.360170212  1
1976 Mountcastle DB, Freire E, Biltonen RL. Generation of continuous ligand–macromolecule binding isotherms. Use of exponential concentration gradients Biopolymers. 15: 355-371. DOI: 10.1002/bip.1976.360150212  1
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