Richard L. Schowen - Publications

Affiliations: 
Chemistry The University of Kansas, USA 
Area:
Organic chemistry and enzymology: reaction mechanisms, bioorganic chemistry, catalysis, isotope effects
Website:
http://www.chem.ku.edu/people/faculty/dschowen

194 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2015 Schowen KB, Schowen RL, Borchardt SE, Borchardt PM, Artursson P, Audus KL, Augustijns P, Nicolazzo JA, Raub TJ, Schöneich C, Siahaan TJ, Takakura Y, Thakker DR, Wolfe MS. A Tribute to Ronald T. Borchardt-Teacher, Mentor, Scientist, Colleague, Leader, Friend, and Family Man. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. PMID 26453244 DOI: 10.1002/jps.24687  1
2015 Lopalco A, Dalwadi G, Niu S, Schowen RL, Douglas J, Stella VJ. Mechanism of Decarboxylation of Pyruvic Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. PMID 26422524 DOI: 10.1002/jps.24653  1
2013 Anandarajah K, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Isotope Effects and Temperature Dependences in the Action of the Glucose Dehydrogenase of the Mesophilic Bacterium Bacillus megaterium. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 26. PMID 24298200 DOI: 10.1002/poc.3166  1
2010 Cai S, Fang J, Li QS, Borchardt RT, Kuczera K, Middaugh CR, Schowen RL. Comparative kinetics of cofactor association and dissociation for the human and trypanosomal S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolases. 3. Role of lysyl and tyrosyl residues of the C-terminal extension. Biochemistry. 49: 8434-41. PMID 20687591 DOI: 10.1021/bi1007595  1
2010 Limbach HH, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Heavy atom motions and tunneling in hydrogen transfer reactions: The importance of the pre-tunneling state Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 23: 586-605. DOI: 10.1002/poc.1663  1
2009 Cai S, Li QS, Fang J, Borchardt RT, Kuczera K, Middaugh CR, Schowen RL. The rationale for targeting the NAD/NADH cofactor binding site of parasitic S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase for the design of anti-parasitic drugs. Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 28: 485-503. PMID 20183598 DOI: 10.1080/15257770903051031  1
2009 Li QS, Cai S, Fang J, Borchardt RT, Kuczera K, Middaugh CR, Schowen RL. Evaluation of NAD(H) analogues as selective inhibitors for Trypanosoma cruzi S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids. 28: 473-84. PMID 20183597 DOI: 10.1080/15257770903044572  1
2008 Li QS, Cai S, Fang J, Borchardt RT, Kuczera K, Middaugh CR, Schowen RL. Comparative kinetics of cofactor association and dissociation for the human and trypanosomal S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolases. 2. The role of helix 18 stability. Biochemistry. 47: 4983-91. PMID 18393535 DOI: 10.1021/bi800175g  1
2008 Givens RS, Heger D, Hellrung B, Kamdzhilov Y, Mac M, Conrad PG, Cope E, Lee JI, Mata-Segreda JF, Schowen RL, Wirz J. The photo-Favorskii reaction of p-hydroxyphenacyl compounds is initiated by water-assisted, adiabatic extrusion of a triplet biradical. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130: 3307-9. PMID 18290649 DOI: 10.1021/ja7109579  1
2008 Hu C, Fang J, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL, Kuczera K. Molecular dynamics simulations of domain motions of substrate-free S-adenosyl- L-homocysteine hydrolase in solution. Proteins. 71: 131-43. PMID 17932938 DOI: 10.1002/prot.21664  1
2008 Anandarajah K, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Hydrogen tunneling in glucose oxidation by the archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie. 222: 1333-1347. DOI: 10.1524/zpch.2008.5391  1
2007 Cai S, Li QS, Borchardt RT, Kuczera K, Schowen RL. The antiviral drug ribavirin is a selective inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 15: 7281-7. PMID 17845853 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2007.08.029  1
2007 Li Y, Williams TD, Schowen RL, Topp EM. Characterizing protein structure in amorphous solids using hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry. 366: 18-28. PMID 17490599 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2007.03.041  1
2007 Schowen RL. Isotopic and other studies on the molecular origins of substrate regulation of some pyruvate decarboxylases: a reconsideration. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies. 43: 1-16. PMID 17454268 DOI: 10.1080/10256010600990393  1
2007 Li QS, Cai S, Borchardt RT, Fang J, Kuczera K, Middaugh CR, Schowen RL. Comparative kinetics of cofactor association and dissociation for the human and trypanosomal S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolases. 1. Basic features of the association and dissociation processes. Biochemistry. 46: 5798-809. PMID 17447732 DOI: 10.1021/bi700170m  1
2007 Gradinaru R, Schowen R, Ghisla S. Solvent isotope effects in reactions of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase active site mutants Biochemistry. 46: 2497-2509. PMID 17286388 DOI: 10.1021/bi0614582  1
2007 Li Y, Williams TD, Schowen RL, Topp EM. Trehalose and calcium exert site-specific effects on calmodulin conformation in amorphous solids. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 97: 1650-3. PMID 17286268 DOI: 10.1002/bit.21362  1
2007 Schowen RL. The use of solvent isotope effects in the pursuit of enzyme mechanisms Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals. 50: 1052-1062. DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.1436  1
2007 Schowen RL. Model Studies of Hydride-Transfer Reactions Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions. 3: 1037-1077. DOI: 10.1002/9783527611546.ch33  1
2006 Wang M, Unruh JR, Johnson CK, Kuczera K, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT. Effects of ligand binding and oxidation on hinge-bending motions in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. Biochemistry. 45: 7778-86. PMID 16784229 DOI: 10.1021/bi0523106  1
2006 Li B, Schowen RL, Topp EM, Borchardt RT. Effect of N-1 and N-2 residues on peptide deamidation rate in solution and solid state. The Aaps Journal. 8: E166-73. PMID 16584125 DOI: 10.1208/aapsj080120  1
2006 Garoutte MP, Bibbs JA, Schowen RL. Solvent isotope effects and the question of quantum tunneling in hydrolytic enzyme action Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology. 43: 455-460. DOI: 10.3327/jnst.43.455  1
2005 Li B, O'Meara MH, Lubach JW, Schowen RL, Topp EM, Munson EJ, Borchardt RT. Effects of sucrose and mannitol on asparagine deamidation rates of model peptides in solution and in the solid state. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 94: 1723-35. PMID 15986465 DOI: 10.1002/jps.20372  1
2005 Wang M, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL, Kuczera K. Domain motions and the open-to-closed conformational transition of an enzyme: a normal mode analysis of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase. Biochemistry. 44: 7228-39. PMID 15882061 DOI: 10.1021/bi047524m  1
2005 Li B, Gorman EM, Moore KD, Williams T, Schowen RL, Topp EM, Borchardt RT. Effects of acidic N + 1 residues on asparagine deamidation rates in solution and in the solid state. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 94: 666-75. PMID 15668945 DOI: 10.1002/jps.20263  1
2004 D'Souza AJ, Schowen RL, Topp EM. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-drug conjugate: synthesis and release mechanism. Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. 94: 91-100. PMID 14684274 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2003.09.014  1
2004 Pang SS, Duggleby RG, Schowen RL, Guddat LW. The crystal structures of Klebsiella pneumoniae acetolactate synthase with enzyme-bound cofactor and with an unusual intermediate. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279: 2242-53. PMID 14557277 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M304038200  1
2004 Romesberg FE, Schowen RL. Isotope effects and quantum tunneling in enzyme-catalyzed hydrogen transfer. Part I. The experimental basis Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry. 39: 27-77. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-3160(04)39002-7  1
2004 Richard JP, Schowen RL. Editorial: Biological applications of physical organic chemistry Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 17: 459-460.  1
2003 Parker NB, Yang X, Hanke J, Mason KA, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Yin DH. Trypanosoma cruzi: molecular cloning and characterization of the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Experimental Parasitology. 105: 149-58. PMID 14969692 DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2003.10.001  1
2003 Schowen RL. How an enzyme surmounts the activation energy barrier. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100: 11931-2. PMID 14530397 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2235806100  1
2003 Li B, Borchardt RT, Topp EM, VanderVelde D, Schowen RL. Racemization of an asparagine residue during peptide deamidation. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 125: 11486-7. PMID 13129337 DOI: 10.1021/ja0360992  1
2003 Hanson BA, Schowen RL, Stella VJ. A mechanistic and kinetic study of the E-ring hydrolysis and lactonization of a novel phosphoryloxymethyl prodrug of camptothecin. Pharmaceutical Research. 20: 1031-8. PMID 12880289 DOI: 10.1023/A:1024410322870  1
2003 Xie M, Shahrokh Z, Kadkhodayan M, Henzel WJ, Powell MF, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. Asparagine deamidation in recombinant human lymphotoxin: hindrance by three-dimensional structures. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 92: 869-80. PMID 12661072 DOI: 10.1002/jps.10342  1
2003 Yang X, Hu Y, Yin DH, Turner MA, Wang M, Borchardt RT, Howell PL, Kuczera K, Schowen RL. Catalytic strategy of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase: transition-state stabilization and the avoidance of abortive reactions. Biochemistry. 42: 1900-9. PMID 12590576 DOI: 10.1021/bi0262350  1
2003 D'Souza AJ, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Salsbury JS, Munson EJ, Topp EM. Reaction of a peptide with polyvinylpyrrolidone in the solid state. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 92: 585-93. PMID 12587120 DOI: 10.1002/jps.10316  1
2002 Schowen RL. The elicitation of carboxylesterase activity in antibodies by reactive immunization with labile organophosphorus antigens: a role for flexibility. Journal of Immunological Methods. 269: 59-65. PMID 12379352 DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1759(02)00224-7  1
2002 Elrod P, Zhang J, Yang X, Yin D, Hu Y, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. Contributions of active site residues to the partial and overall catalytic activities of human S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Biochemistry. 41: 8134-42. PMID 12069606 DOI: 10.1021/bi025771p  1
2002 Schowen RL. Hydrogen tunneling: Goodbye to all that European Journal of Biochemistry. 269: 3095. DOI: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03036.x  1
2002 Spies MA, Schowen RL. The trapping of a spontaneously "flipped-out" base from double helical nucleic acids by host-guest complexation with β-cyclodextrin: The intrinsic base-flipping rate constant for DNA and RNA Journal of the American Chemical Society. 124: 14049-14053. DOI: 10.1021/ja012272n  1
2001 Hu Y, Yang X, Yin DH, Mahadevan J, Kuczera K, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT. Computational characterization of substrate binding and catalysis in S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. Biochemistry. 40: 15143-52. PMID 11735397 DOI: 10.1021/bi015690d  1
2001 Zhou J, Riley CM, Schowen RL. In vitro metabolism studies of the prodrug, 2',3',5'-triacetyl-6-azauridine, utilizing an automated analytical system. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 26: 701-16. PMID 11600283 DOI: 10.1016/S0731-7085(01)00433-2  1
2001 Song Y, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Topp EM. Formaldehyde production by Tris buffer in peptide formulations at elevated temperature. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 90: 1198-203. PMID 11536224 DOI: 10.1002/jps.1073  1
2001 Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aubé J, Borchardt RT. A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharmaceutical Research. 18: 171-6. PMID 11405287 DOI: 10.1023/A:1011076217118  1
2001 Song Y, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Topp EM. Effect of 'pH' on the rate of asparagine deamidation in polymeric formulations: 'pH'-rate profile. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 90: 141-56. PMID 11169531 DOI: 10.1002/1520-6017(200102)90:2<141::AID-JPS5>3.0.CO;2-Y  1
2000 DeSilva BS, Wilson GS, Schowen RL. Catalyst design for reactions with multiple transition states. Chemical Immunology. 77: 33-57. PMID 11706705  1
2000 Li R, D'Souza AJ, Laird BB, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Topp EM. Effects of solution polarity and viscosity on peptide deamidation. The Journal of Peptide Research : Official Journal of the American Peptide Society. 56: 326-34. PMID 11095186 DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3011.2000.00783.x  1
2000 Xie M, Aubé J, Borchardt RT, Morton M, Topp EM, Vander Velde D, Schowen RL. Reactivity toward deamidation of asparagine residues in beta-turn structures. The Journal of Peptide Research : Official Journal of the American Peptide Society. 56: 165-71. PMID 11007273 DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3011.2000.00764.x  1
2000 Yin D, Yang X, Hu Y, Kuczera K, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Squier TC. Substrate binding stabilizes S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in a closed conformation. Biochemistry. 39: 9811-8. PMID 10933798 DOI: 10.1021/bi000595a  1
2000 DeSilva BS, Orosz G, Egodage KL, Carlson RG, Schowen RL, Wilson GS. Catalytic antibodies for complex reactions: hapten design and the importance of screening for catalysis in the generation of catalytic antibodies for the NDA/CN reaction. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 83: 195-206; discussion . PMID 10826960  1
2000 Schowen KB, Limbach HH, Denisov GS, Schowen RL. Hydrogen bonds and proton transfer in general-catalytic transition-state stabilization in enzyme catalysis. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. 1458: 43-62. PMID 10812024 DOI: 10.1016/S0005-2728(00)00059-1  1
2000 Lai MC, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Topp EM. Deamidation of a model hexapeptide in poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels and xerogels. The Journal of Peptide Research : Official Journal of the American Peptide Society. 55: 93-101. PMID 10784025 DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3011.2000.00156.x  1
2000 Paul S, Shoenfeld, Kohler H, Rose, Brahmachari, Neuberger, Zouali M, Kirby AJ, Marchalonis JJ, Green, Tramontano A, Vijayalakshmi, Schowen RL, Christen P, Capra JD, et al. General discussion II Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part a Enzyme Engineering and Biotechnology. 83: 297-313. DOI: 10.1039/FS9751000160  1
1999 Lai MC, Hageman MJ, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Laird BB, Topp EM. Chemical stability of peptides in polymers. 2. Discriminating between solvent and plasticizing effects of water on peptide deamidation in poly(vinylpyrrolidone). Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 88: 1081-9. PMID 10514359 DOI: 10.1021/js9802289  1
1999 Lai MC, Hageman MJ, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT, Topp EM. Chemical stability of peptides in polymers. 1. Effect of water on peptide deamidation in poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) matrixes. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 88: 1073-80. PMID 10514358 DOI: 10.1021/js980227g  1
1999 Hajipour G, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. The linkage of catalysis and regulation in enzyme action: oxidative diversion in the hysteretically regulated yeast pyruvate decarboxylase. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 7: 887-94. PMID 10400342 DOI: 10.1016/S0968-0896(98)00269-7  1
1999 Xie M, Schowen RL. Secondary structure and protein deamidation. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 88: 8-13. PMID 9874696 DOI: 10.1021/js9802493  1
1999 Smirnov SN, Benedict H, Golubev NS, Denisov GS, Kreevoy MM, Schowen RL, Limbach HH. Exploring zero-point energies and hydrogen bond geometries along proton transfer pathways by low-temperature NMR Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 77: 943-949.  1
1999 Tian J, Tan J, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. The role of the medium in solvent isotope effects on serine protease action Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 77: 781-786.  1
1998 Hong J, Sun S, Derrick T, Larive C, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Transition-state theoretical interpretation of the catalytic power of pyruvate decarboxylases: the roles of static and dynamical considerations. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. 1385: 187-200. PMID 9655907 DOI: 10.1016/S0167-4838(98)00068-5  1
1998 Bibbs JA, Garoutte MP, Wang B, Tittel PD, Barbara Schowen K, Schowen RL. The contribution of secondary proton bridges to the catalytic power of the serine proteases Berichte Der Bunsengesellschaft/Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 102: 573-579.  1
1998 Rytting JH, Schowen RL. Issues in scientific integrity: A practical course for graduate students in the chemical sciences Journal of Chemical Education. 75: 1317-1320.  1
1997 Sun S, Smith GS, O'Leary MH, Schowen RL. The linkage of catalysis and regulation in enzyme action. Fluoropyruvate as a probe of regulation in pyruvate decarboxylases Journal of the American Chemical Society. 119: 1507-1515. DOI: 10.1021/ja963259j  1
1997 Schowen RL. Harmony and Dissonance in the Concert of Proton Motions Angewandte Chemie (International Edition in English). 36: 1434-1438.  1
1996 Nicolaou MG, Wolfe JL, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT. Facilitated Intramolecular Conjugate Addition of Amides of 3-(3',6'-Dioxo-2',4'-dimethyl-1',4'-cyclohexadienyl)-3,3-dimethylpropionic Acid. 2. Kinetics of Degradation. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 61: 6633-6638. PMID 11667533  0.76
1996 Zhou J, Shearer EC, Hong J, Riley CM, Schowen RL. Automated analytical systems for drug development studies. V. A system for enzyme kinetic studies. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 14: 1691-8. PMID 8887716 DOI: 10.1016/0731-7085(96)01792-X  1
1996 Aistrup GL, Szentirmay M, Kumar KN, Babcock KK, Schowen RL, Michaelis EK. Ion channel properties of a protein complex with characteristics of a glutamate/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Febs Letters. 394: 141-8. PMID 8843152 DOI: 10.1016/0014-5793(96)00938-6  1
1996 Xie M, Vander Velde D, Morton M, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. pH-induced change in the rate-determining step for the hydrolysis of the Asp/Asn-derived cyclic-imide intermediate in protein degradation Journal of the American Chemical Society. 118: 8955-8956. DOI: 10.1021/ja9606182  1
1996 Orosz G, Givens RS, Schowen RL. A model for mechanism of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence as applied to detection in liquid chromatography Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry. 26: 1-27.  1
1996 Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Transition-state Acidities and the pH Dependence of Drug Stability Croatica Chemica Acta. 69: 1491-1500.  1
1996 Bryan CD, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Solvent isotope effects as a probe of general catalysis and solvation in phosphoryl transfer Canadian Journal of Chemistry. 74: 931-938.  1
1996 Nicolaou MG, Wolfe JL, Schowen RL, Borchardt RT. Facilitated intramolecular conjugate addition of amides of 3-(3′,6′-dioxo-2′,4′-dimethyl-1′,4′- cyclohexadienyl)-3,3-dimethylpropionic acid. 2. Kinetics of degradation Journal of Organic Chemistry. 61: 6633-6638.  1
1995 Zhou J, Ain RJ, Riley CM, Schowen RL. Spectrophotometric assay for porcine liver esterase activity. Analytical Biochemistry. 231: 265-7. PMID 8678312 DOI: 10.1006/abio.1995.1531  1
1995 Riley CM, Mummert MA, Zhou J, Schowen RL, Vander Velde DG, Morton MD, Slavik M. Hydrolysis of the prodrug, 2',3',5'-triacetyl-6-azauridine. Pharmaceutical Research. 12: 1361-70. PMID 8570536 DOI: 10.1023/A:1016238110533  1
1995 Sun S, Duggleby RG, Schowen RL. Linkage of catalysis and regulation in enzyme action. Carbon isotope effects, solvent isotope effects, and proton inventories for the unregulated pyruvate decarboxylase of Zymomonas mobilis Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117: 7317-7322.  1
1995 Alvarez FJ, Ermer J, Hübner G, Schellenberger A, Schowen RL. The linkage of catalysis and regulation in enzyme action. Solvent isotope effects as probes of protonic sites in the yeast pyruvate decarboxylase mechanism Journal of the American Chemical Society. 117: 1678-1683.  1
1995 Lai MC, Topp EM, Schowen R, Borchardt RT. Peptide stability in polymer matrices Proceedings of the Controlled Release Society. 532-533.  1
1994 Xie M, Seravalli J, Huskey WP, Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Solvent isotope effects and the nature of electrophilic catalysis in the action of the lactate dehydrogenase of Bacillus stearothermophilus. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 2: 691-5. PMID 7858977 DOI: 10.1016/0968-0896(94)85019-4  1
1994 Shah KP, Zhou J, Lee R, Schowen RL, Elsbernd R, Ault JM, Stobaugh JF, Slavik M, Riley CM. Automated analytical systems for drug development studies. I--A system for the determination of drug stability. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 12: 993-1001. PMID 7819385 DOI: 10.1016/0731-7085(94)E0011-O  1
1992 Huhta DW, Heckenthaler T, Alvarez FJ, Ermer J, Hübner G, Schellenberger A, Schowen RL. The catalytic power of pyruvate decarboxylase. A stochastic model for the molecular evolution of enzymes. Acta Chemica Scandinavica (Copenhagen, Denmark : 1989). 46: 778-88. PMID 1497997  1
1992 Michaelis EK, Michaelis ML, Kumar KN, Tilakaratne N, Joseph DB, Johnson PS, Babcock KK, Aistrup GL, Schowen RL, Minami H. Purification, reconstitution, and cloning of an NMDA receptor-ion channel complex from rat brain synaptic membranes: implications for neurobiological changes in alcoholism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 654: 7-18. PMID 1378712  1
1992 Brandt W, Lehmann T, Hofmann T, Schowen RL, Barth A. The probable conformation of substrates recognized by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV and some aspects of the catalytic mechanism derived from theoretical investigations. Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design. 6: 159-74. PMID 1352539 DOI: 10.1007/BF00129426  1
1992 Shetty BV, Schowen RL, Slavik M, Riley CM. Degradation of dacarbazine in aqueous solution. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 10: 675-83. PMID 1286132 DOI: 10.1016/0731-7085(92)80096-6  1
1992 Orosz G, Givens RS, Schowen RL. Chemiluminescence arising from the interaction of rubrene with intermediates derived from hydrogen peroxide and bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) oxalate (DNPO): quantum yield and carbondioxide yield Analytica Chimica Acta. 266: 219-223. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2670(92)85046-9  1
1991 Gil H, Mata-Segreda J, Schowen R. Effect of non-enzymic glycosylation on reactivity in proteolysis | Efecto de la glucación no enzimática en la reactividad en proteólisis Acta Cientifica Venezolana. 42: 16-23. PMID 1843556  1
1991 Allsopp MA, Sewell GJ, Rowland CG, Riley CM, Schowen RL. The degradation of carboplatin in aqueous solutions containing chloride or other selected nucleophiles International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 69: 197-210. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5173(91)90362-R  1
1991 Alvarez FJ, Ermer J, Hübner G, Schellenberger A, Schowen RL. Catalytic power of pyruvate decarboxylase. Rate-limiting events and microscopic rate constants from primary carbon and secondary hydrogen isotope effects Journal of the American Chemical Society. 113: 8402-8409.  1
1990 Chokshi HP, Barbush M, Carlson RG, Givens RS, Kuwana T, Schowen RL. Oxalate/hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence reaction. A 19F NMR probe of the reaction mechanism. Biomedical Chromatography : Bmc. 4: 96-9. PMID 2383698 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1130040304  1
1990 Shiekhattar R, Bibbs EG, Schowen RL, Adams RN. Rapid chemical sampling of endogenous species from brain slice preparations. Neuroscience Letters. 111: 189-94. PMID 1970858 DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(90)90366-H  1
1989 Bennet AJ, Kovach IM, Schowen RL. Enzymatic determination of the concentration of intact soman and sarin in aqueous solutions Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 33: 78-82. DOI: 10.1016/0048-3575(89)90078-3  1
1989 Orlovi? M, Schowen RL, Givens RS, Alvarez F, Matuszewski B, Parekh N. A simplified model for the dynamics of chemiluminescence in the oxalate-hydrogen peroxide system: Toward a reaction mechanism Journal of Organic Chemistry. 54: 3606-3610.  1
1989 Demuth HU, Fischer G, Barth A, Schowen RL. N-O bond fission as the rate-determining step in the aqueous conversion of N-peptidyl-O-(p-nitrobenzoyl)hydroxylamines to p-nitrobenzoic acid and peptidylhydroxamic acids Journal of Organic Chemistry. 54: 5880-5883.  1
1988 Demuth HU, Heins J, Fujihara H, Mordy CW, Barth A, Schowen RL. Molecular interactions in intermediate and transition states in the self-stimulated inhibition of enzymes. Die Pharmazie. 43: 262-4. PMID 2842812  1
1988 Bibbs JA, Demuth HU, Huskey WP, Mordy CW, Schowen RL. On the role of quantum tunneling phenomena in the catalytic power of enzymes Journal of Molecular Catalysis. 47: 187-197. DOI: 10.1016/0304-5102(88)85042-9  1
1988 Bennet AJ, Kovach IM, Schowen RL. Rate-limiting P-O fission in the self-stimulated inactivation of acetylcholinesterase by 4-nitrophenyl 2-propyl methylphosphonate Journal of the American Chemical Society. 110: 7892-7893.  1
1988 Gil H, Mata-Segreda JF, Schowen RL. Proton transfer is not rate-limiting in buffer-induced nonenzymic glucation of hemoglobin Journal of the American Chemical Society. 110: 8265-8266.  1
1988 Hanaoka N, Givens RS, Schowen RL, Kuwana T. Stopped-flow determination of the parameters affecting the application of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence to high-performance liquid chromatographic detection Analytical Chemistry. 60: 2193-2197.  1
1988 Kovach IM, Huber JHA, Schowen RL. Catalytic recruitment in the inactivation of acetylcholinesterase by soman: Temperature dependence of the solvent isotope effect Journal of the American Chemical Society. 110: 590-593.  1
1987 Heins J, Neubert K, Barth A, Schowen RL. Molecular modeling of the specificity requirements of dipeptidyl peptidase IV Advances in the Biosciences. 65: 231-240.  1
1987 Mordy CW, Schowen RL. Theoretical aspects of the catalytic power of serine proteases: on the role of quantum tunneling Advances in the Biosciences. 65: 273-280.  1
1987 Kovach IM, Schowen RL. Catalytic recruitment in the inactivation of serine hydrolases by phosphonate esters Advances in the Biosciences. 65: 205-212.  1
1986 Hutley BG, Mountain AE, Williams IH, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Linearity and the unimportance of tunnelling in hydride transfer: Ab initio MO studies Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications. 267-268. DOI: 10.1039/C39860000267  1
1986 Kovach IM, Larson M, Schowen RL. One-proton catalysis in the deacetylation of acetylcholinesterase Journal of the American Chemical Society. 108: 3054-3056.  1
1986 Kovach IM, Larson M, Schowen RL. Catalytic recruitment in the inactivation of serine proteases by phosphonate esters. Recruitment of acid-base catalysis Journal of the American Chemical Society. 108: 5490-5495.  1
1986 Alvarez FJ, Parekh NJ, Matuszewski B, Givens RS, Higuchi T, Schowen RL. Multiple intermediates generate fluorophore-derived light in the oxalate/peroxide chemiluminescence system Journal of the American Chemical Society. 108: 6435-6437.  1
1985 Fujihara H, Schowen RL. Additivity of isotope effects for successive deuteration in the deacetylation of acetyl-α-chymotrypsin Bioorganic Chemistry. 13: 57-61. DOI: 10.1016/0045-2068(85)90007-0  1
1985 Kovach IM, Belz M, Larson M, Rousy S, Schowen RL. Transition-state structures for ester aminolysis with and without rate-limiting proton transfer Journal of the American Chemical Society. 107: 7360-7365.  1
1985 Williams IH, Spangler D, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Theoretical probes of activated-complex structure and properties: Substituent effects in carbonyl addition Journal of the American Chemical Society. 107: 7717-7723.  1
1985 Wong OS, Sternson LA, Schowen RL. Reaction of o-phthalaldehyde with alanine and thiols: Kinetics and mechanism Journal of the American Chemical Society. 107: 6421-6422.  1
1984 Lee HK, Lambert HJ, Schowen RL. On the mechanism of dehydration of a beta-hydroxycyclopentanone analogue of prostaglandin E1. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 73: 306-10. PMID 6538905  1
1984 Venkatasubban KS, Schowen RL. The proton inventory technique. Crc Critical Reviews in Biochemistry. 17: 1-44. PMID 6094099  1
1984 Stein RL, Fujihara H, Quinn DM, Fischer G, Küllertz G, Barth A, Schowen RL. Transition-state structural features for anilide hydrolysis from β-deuterium isotope effects Journal of the American Chemical Society. 106: 1457-1461.  1
1984 Wu SE, Huskey WP, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. Different isotope effects for parallel pathways of enzyme-catalyzed transmethylation Journal of the American Chemical Society. 106: 5762-5763.  1
1984 Hoops SC, Van Oosterdiep J, Schowen RL. Energetics of carbonyl addition and elimination. Methoxide ion with esters Journal of Organic Chemistry. 49: 435-438.  1
1984 Young JK, Pazhanisamy S, Schowen RL. Energetics of carbonyl addition and elimination. Kinetic manifestations of acyl substituent effects in anilide hydrolysis Journal of Organic Chemistry. 49: 4148-4152.  1
1984 Venkatasubban KS, Schowen RL. Protolytic catalysis of anilide methanolysis. Spectator catalysis of leaving-group departure Journal of Organic Chemistry. 49: 653-655.  1
1984 Fujihara H, Schowen RL. Facile, economical synthesis of L-[α-2H]-α-amino acids Journal of Organic Chemistry. 49: 2819-2820.  1
1984 Su-Er Wu, Huskey WP, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. Different kinetic isotope effects for parallel enzyme catalyzed transmethylation reactions Federation Proceedings. 43: no. 1712.  1
1983 Wu SE, Huskey WP, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. Chiral instability at sulfur of S-adenosylmethionine. Biochemistry. 22: 2828-32. PMID 6871165  1
1983 Schowen RL. Catalytic accelerations [3] Chemical and Engineering News. 61: 39+47.  1
1983 Wong OSL, Schowen RL. Simultaneous occurrence of solvent reorganization and heavy-atom reorganization in a transmethylation transition state Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105: 1951-1954.  1
1983 Phillip Huskey W, Schowen RL. Reaction-coordinate tunneling in hydride-transfer reactions Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105: 5704-5706.  1
1983 Williams IH, Spangler D, Femec DA, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Theoretical models for solvation and catalysis in carbonyl addition Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105: 31-40.  1
1983 Stein RL, Elrod JP, Schowen RL. Correlative variations in enzyme-derived and substrate-derived structures of catalytic transition states. Implications for the catalytic strategy of acyl-transfer enzymes Journal of the American Chemical Society. 105: 2446-2452.  1
1982 Schowen KB, Schowen RL. Solvent isotope effects of enzyme systems. Methods in Enzymology. 87: 551-606. PMID 6294457  0.32
1982 Barbara Schowen K, Schowen RL. [29] Solvent isotope effects on enzyme systems Methods in Enzymology. 87: 551-606. DOI: 10.1016/S0076-6879(82)87031-6  1
1982 Rodgers J, Femec DA, Schowen RL. Isotopic mapping of transition-state structural features associated with enzymic catalysis of methyl transfer Journal of the American Chemical Society. 104: 3263-3268.  1
1982 Alvarez FJ, Kovach IM, Schowen RL. Economical syntheses of 3H-2H and 14C-labeled ethyl acetates Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals. 19: 385-388.  1
1981 Mata-Segreda JF, Schowen RL. Tritium/protium discrimination in reduction of cyclopropenium ion by sodium borohydride does not identify the rate-determining step Journal of Organic Chemistry. 46: 644-645.  1
1980 Faiman MD, Haya K, Zempel JA, Schowen RL. GABA metabolism in O2-induced convulsions Brain Research Bulletin. 5: 789-792. DOI: 10.1016/0361-9230(80)90131-8  1
1980 Williams IH, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Theoretical models for mechanism and catalysis in carbonyl addition Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 7831-7839.  1
1980 Kovach IM, Elrod JP, Schowen RL. Reaction progress at the transition state for nucleophilic attack on esters Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 7530-7534.  1
1980 Kovach IM, Hogg JL, Raben T, Halbert K, Rodgers J, Schowen RL. The β- hydrogen secondary isotope effect in acyl transfer reactions. Origins, temperature dependence, and utility as a probe of transition-state structure Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 1991-1999.  1
1980 Hogg JL, Rodgers J, Kovach I, Schowen RL. Kinetic isotope-effect probes of transition-state structure. Vibrational analysis of model transition states for carbonyl addition Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 79-85.  1
1980 Hogg JL, Elrod JP, Schowen RL. Transition-state properties and rate-limiting processes in the acetylation of acetylcholinesterase by natural and unnatural substrates Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 2082-2086.  1
1980 Hegazi M, Mata-Segreda JF, Schowen RL. Immature hydronium ion as a general transition-state catalytic entity in water reactions Journal of Organic Chemistry. 45: 307-310.  1
1980 Gandour RD, Coyne M, Stella VJ, Schowen RL. Proton inventory of phthalic anhydride hydrolysis. Comments on analysis of proton-inventory data Journal of Organic Chemistry. 45: 1733-1737.  1
1980 Williams IH, Spangler D, Femec DA, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Theoretical models for transition-state structure and catalysis in carbonyl addition [42] Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 6619-6621.  1
1980 Quinn DM, Venkatasubban KS, Kise M, Schowen RL. Protonic reorganization and substrate structure in catalysis by amidohydrolases Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 5365-5369.  1
1980 Quinn DM, Elrod JP, Ardis R, Friesen P, Schowen RL. Protonic reorganization in catalysis by serine proteases: Acylation by small substrates Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 5358-5365.  1
1980 Elrod JP, Hogg JL, Quinn DM, Venkatasubban KS, Schowen RL. Protonic reorganization and substrate structure in catalysis by serine proteases Journal of the American Chemical Society. 102: 3917-3922.  1
1979 Hegazi MF, Borchardt RT, Schowen RL. α-Deuterium and carbon-13 isotope effects for methyl transfer catalyzed by catechol O-methyltransferase. SN2-like transition state Journal of the American Chemical Society. 101: 4359-4365.  1
1979 Mihel I, Knipe JO, Coward JK, Schowen RL. α-Deuterium isotope effects and transition-state structure in an intramolecular model system for methyl-transfer enzymes Journal of the American Chemical Society. 101: 4349-4351.  1
1979 Gray CH, Coward JK, Barbara Schowen K, Schowen RL. α-Deuterium and carbon-13 isotope effects for a simple, intermolecular sulfur-to-oxygen methyl-transfer reaction. Transition-state structures and isotope effects in transmethylation and transalkylation Journal of the American Chemical Society. 101: 4351-4358.  1
1978 Borchardt RT, Olsen J, Eiden L, Schowen RL, Rutledge CO. The isolation and characterization of the methyl acceptor protein from adrenal chromaffin granules. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 83: 970-6. PMID 708445 DOI: 10.1016/0006-291X(78)91466-3  1
1978 Borchardt RT, Hegazi MF, Schowen RL. Determination of O-methylated metabolites of cathecholamines using high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Journal of Chromatography. 152: 253-9. PMID 649747 DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(00)85363-7  1
1978 Gandour RD, Stella VJ, Coyne M, Schowen RL, Icaza EA. Secondary isotope effects in intramolecular catalysis. Mono-p-bromophenyl succinate hydrolysis Journal of Organic Chemistry. 43: 1705-1708.  1
1978 Borchardt RT, Hegazi MF, Schowen RL. Determination of O-methylated metabolites of catecholamines using high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection Journal of Chromatography. 152: 255-259.  1
1977 Mata Segreda JF, Lindenbaum S, Schowen RL. The transition state for exchange of protons and metal ions in a carboxylate ion-exchange resin Journal of the American Chemical Society. 99: 5916-5919.  1
1976 Hegazi MF, Borchard RT, Schowen RL. Letter: SN2-like transition state for methyl transfer catalyzed by catechol-O-methyl-transferase. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 98: 3048-9. PMID 1262638  1
1975 Harmony JA, Himes RH, Schowen RL. The monovalent cation-induced association of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase subunits: a solvent isotope effect. Biochemistry. 14: 5379-86. PMID 1191644  1
1975 Nakano NI, Kise M, Smissman EE, Widiger K, Schowen RL. Transition-state structure and reactivity in the acid-base-catalyzed hydrolysis of a model intermediate for corn-plant herbicide resistance. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 40: 2215-20. PMID 237993  1
1975 Elrod JP, Gandour RD, Hogg JL, Kise M, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL, Venkatasubban KS. Proton bridges in enzyme catalysis Faraday Symposia of the Chemical Society. 10: 145-153. DOI: 10.1039/FS9751000145  1
1975 Wang MS, Gandour RD, Rodgers J, Haslam JL, Schowen RL. Transition-state structure for a conformation change of ribonuclease Bioorganic Chemistry. 4: 392-406. DOI: 10.1016/0045-2068(75)90050-4  1
1974 Gandour RD, Schowen RL. Multiproton catalysis in the hydrolysis of 3,5-dinitroaspirin. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 96: 2231-4. PMID 4833644  1
1974 Hogg JL, Schowen RL. Synthetic procedures for deuterium-labeled acetylcholine perchlorates. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 63: 1620-3. PMID 4373563  1
1974 Modro A, Schowen RL. General-base catalysis of silicon-oxygen bond cleavage. Hidden isotope effects Journal of the American Chemical Society. 96: 6980-6982.  1
1974 Swain CG, Pörschke KR, Ahmed W, Schowen RL. One-step and two-step displacements at silicon [22] Journal of the American Chemical Society. 96: 4700-4702.  1
1974 Mata-Segreda JF, Wint S, Schowen RL. Tight binding of hydroxyl protons in gem-diols and hemiacetals [33] Journal of the American Chemical Society. 96: 5608-5609.  1
1974 Candour RD, Maggiora GM, Schowen RL. Coupling of proton motions in catalytic activated complexes. Model potential-energy surfaces for hydrogen-bond chains Journal of the American Chemical Society. 96: 6967-6979.  1
1973 Nakano NI, Smissman EE, Schowen RL. Nucleophilic and bifunctional catalysis. Mechanism, reactivity, and transition-state structure in the hydrolysis of 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine by N-hydroxysuccinimide and 1-hydroxy-2-piperidone. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 38: 4396-401. PMID 4782676  1
1973 Faiman MD, Myers MB, Schowen RL. Post-mortem degradation kinetics of brain norepinephrine. Biochemical Pharmacology. 22: 2171-81. PMID 4733671 DOI: 10.1016/0006-2952(73)90116-0  1
1973 Pollock E, Hogg JL, Schowen RL. One-proton catalysis in the deacetylation of acetyl- -chymotrypsin. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95: 968-9. PMID 4688663  1
1973 Howie CR, Lee JK, Schowen RL. Proton inventory of the transition state for hydride expulsion from silicon Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95: 5286-5288.  1
1973 Minor SS, Schowen RL. One-proton solvation bridge in intramolecular carboxylate catalysis of ester hydrolysis Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95: 2279-2281.  1
1973 Hopper CR, Schowen RL, Venkatasubban KS, Jayaraman H. Proton inventories of transition states for solvation catalysis and proton-transfer catalysis. Decomposition of the tetrahedral intermediate in amide methanolysis Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95: 3280-3283.  1
1973 Williams AE, Lee JK, Schowen RL. Catalytic mechanism of intermolecularly carboxylate-assisted acyl transfer Journal of Organic Chemistry. 38: 4053-4056.  1
1973 Drake D, Schowen RL, Jayaraman H. Diffusion-controlled proton transfer and heavy-atom reorganization in the general acid, specific base catalyzed hydrolysis of amides Journal of the American Chemical Society. 95: 454-458.  1
1972 Gandour RD, Schowen RL. Chapter 26. Intramolecular Catalysis in Medicinal Chemistry Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. 7: 279-288. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-7743(08)60821-0  1
1972 O'Donnell K, Bacon R, Chellappa KL, Schowen RL, Lee JK. Catalytic mode, solvent isotope effects, and transition-state structure in hydride expulsion from silicon Journal of the American Chemical Society. 94: 2500-2505.  1
1972 Schowen RL, Hopper CR, Bazikian CM. Substituent effects and solvent isotope effects in the basic methanolysis of amides Journal of the American Chemical Society. 94: 3095-3097.  1
1972 Burgstahler AW, Walker DE, Kuebrich JP, Schowen RL. A convenient synthesis of benzaldehyde-formyl-d from benzil Journal of Organic Chemistry. 37: 1272-1273.  1
1971 Bacon R, Schowen RL. Automatic recording of pressure-time data. Analytical Biochemistry. 41: 277-8. PMID 5578547 DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(71)90213-2  1
1971 Kuebrich JP, Schowen RL. Chemistry of the active-aldehyde intermediate Journal of the American Chemical Society. 93: 1220-1223.  1
1971 Kuebrich JP, Schowen RL, Wang MS, Lupes ME. The mechanism of the benzoin condensation Journal of the American Chemical Society. 93: 1214-1220.  1
1971 Kershner LD, Schowen RL. Proton transfer heavy-atom reorganization in amide hydrolysis. Valence-isomeric transition states Journal of the American Chemical Society. 93: 2014-2024.  1
1970 Schowen RL, Bacon R. Evidence for proton transfer concomitant with hydride expulsion from silanes Tetrahedron Letters. 11: 4177-4180. DOI: 10.1016/S0040-4039(01)98696-4  1
1969 Mertes MP, Lee HK, Schowen RL. The conformational preferences of sulfur and oxygen in hemithioketals Journal of Organic Chemistry. 34: 2080-2082.  1
1969 Mitton CG, Gresser M, Schowen RL. Solvent isotope effects and transition-state solvation in the basic methanolysis of esters Journal of the American Chemical Society. 91: 2045-2047.  1
1969 Mitton CG, Schowen RL, Gresser M, Shapley J. Isotope exchange and solvolysis in the basic methanolysis of aryl esters. Molecular interpretation of free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of activation Journal of the American Chemical Society. 91: 2036-2044.  1
1968 Mitton CG, Schowen RL. Oxygen isotope effects by a noncompetitive technique: The transition-state carbonyl stretching frequency in ester cleavage Tetrahedron Letters. 9: 5803-5806.  1
1968 Schowen KB, Smissman EE, Schowen RL. Mechanism of the prins reaction. Kinetics and product composition in acetic acid Journal of Organic Chemistry. 33: 1873-1876.  1
1968 Schowen RL, Behn CG. Nucleophilic catalysis by acetate ion in the methanolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate Journal of the American Chemical Society. 90: 5839-5844.  1
1967 Schowen RL. Isergonic relations and their significance for catalysis. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 56: 931-43. PMID 5340702  1
1967 Schowen RL, Latham KS. The transition state for base-catalyzed cleavage of the silicon-oxygen bond Journal of the American Chemical Society. 89: 4677-4683.  1
1966 Schowen RL, Jayaraman H, Kershner L. Catalytic efficiencies in amide hydrolysis. The two-step mechanism. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88: 3373-5. PMID 5946599  1
1966 Schowen RL, Jayaraman H, Kershner L, Zuorick GW. Solvent isotope effects in amide hydrolysis. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88: 4008-12. PMID 5915154  1
1966 Schowen RL, Zuorick GW. Amide hydrolysis. Superimposed general base catalysis in the cleavage of anilides Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88: 1223-1225.  1
1966 Schowen RL, Latham KS. Classical general base catalysis of silicon-oxygen bond cleavage Journal of the American Chemical Society. 88: 3795-3797.  1
1966 Schowen RL, Jayaraman H, Kershner L. Kinetic evidence for a two-step mechanism of amide hydrolysis Tetrahedron Letters. 7: 497-500.  1
1965 SWAIN CG, SCHOWEN RL. A FREE-ELECTRON MODEL FOR KINETIC SUBSTITUENT EFFECTS. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 30: 615-7. PMID 14267304  1
1965 Schowen RL, Zuorick GW. Superimposed general base catalysis in anilide hydrolysis. Tetrahedron Letters. 3839-41. PMID 5842464  1
1965 Swain CG, Kuhn DA, Schowen RL. Effect of structural changes in reactants on the position of hydrogen-bonding hydrogens and solvating molecules in transition states. The mechanism of tetrahydrofuran formation from 4-chlorobutanol Journal of the American Chemical Society. 87: 1553-1561.  1
1963 Swain CG, Schowen RL. The temperature-independent factor of the kinetic isotope effect [12] Journal of the American Chemical Society. 85: 2023-2024.  1
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