Edmund Beecher Wilson

Columbia University, New York, NY 
Chromosomes, cell biology
"Edmund Wilson"

Edmund Beecher Wilson (October 19, 1856 – March 3, 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.
Wilson was born in Geneva, Illinois, and graduated from Yale in 1878. He earned his doctorate at Johns Hopkins in 1881.
He was a lecturer at Williams College in 1883-84 and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1884-85. He served as professor of biology at Bryn Mawr College from 1885 to 1891.
He spent the balance of his career at Columbia University where he was successively adjunct professor of biology (1891-94), professor of invertebrate zoölogy (1894-97), and professor of zoölogy beginning in 1897.
Wilson is credited as America's first cell biologist. In 1898 he used the similarity in embryos to describe phylogenetic relationships. By observing spinal cleavage in molluscs, flatworms and annelids he concluded that the same organs came from the same group of cells and concluded that all these organisms must have a common ancestor.
He also discovered the chromosomal XY sex-determination system in 1905 -- that males have XY and females XX sex chromosomes. Nettie Stevens independently made the same discovery the same year.
Professor Wilson published many papers on embryology, and served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1913.
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Clarence Erwin McClung research assistant Columbia (Evolution Tree)
Carl L. Alsberg research assistant 1896 Columbia (Chemistry Tree)
Hans Zinsser research assistant 1898 Columbia (ID Tree)
Ethel Nicholson Browne Harvey grad student (Neurotree)
Gary Nathan Calkins grad student 1898 Columbia
Albert P. Mathews grad student 1898 Columbia (Chemistry Tree)
Naohide Yatsu grad student 1901-1905 Columbia
Aaron Franklin Shull grad student 1911 Columbia (Evolution Tree)
John Whittemore Gowen grad student 1919 Columbia (FlyTree)
Franz Schrader grad student 1919 Columbia
Arthur W. Pollister grad student 1930 Columbia (Neurotree)
Marcus Singer grad student 1938 MBL
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Wilson EB, Pollister AW. (1937) Observations on sperm formation in the centrurid scorpions with especial reference to the Golgi material Journal of Morphology. 60: 407-443
Wilson EB. (1932) Polyploidy and metaphase patterns Journal of Morphology. 53: 443-471
Crane CR, Lillie FR, Wilson EB, et al. (1925) MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY DEDICATION EXERCISES, JULY 3, 1925. Science (New York, N.Y.). 62: 271-80
Wilson EB. (1925) The Sex-Chromosomes Of Sea-Urchins Science. 61: 184-184
Wilson EB. (1916) The Distribution of the Chondriosomes to the Spermatozoa in Scorpions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2: 321-324
Wilson EB. (1912) Studies on chromosomes. VIII. Observations on the maturation‐phenomena in certain Hemiptera and other forms, with considerations on synapsis and reduction Journal of Experimental Zoology. 13: 345-449
Wilson EB. (1911) Studies on chromosomes. VII. A review of the chromosomes of Nezara; with some more general considerations Journal of Morphology. 22: 71-110
Wilson EB. (1910) Selective Fertilization And The Relation Of The Chromosomes To Sex-Production. Science. 32: 242-244
Wilson EB. (1910) Note On The Chromosomes Of Nezara. A Correction And Addition. Science. 31: 788-789
Wilson EB. (1910) Studies on chromosomes. VI. A new type of chromosome combination in metapodius Journal of Experimental Zoology. 9: 53-78
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