# Bertram E. Shi - Publications

## Affiliations: | Engineering, Electronics and Electrical | Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, New Territories, Hong Kong |

##### Area:

Electronics and Electrical EngineeringYear | Citation | Score | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

2016 | Sun L, Jia K, Yeung DY, Shi BE. Human action recognition using factorized spatio-temporal convolutional networks Proceedings of the Ieee International Conference On Computer Vision. 11: 4597-4605. DOI: 10.1109/ICCV.2015.522 |
1 | |||

2015 | Chandrapala TN, Shi BE. Learning Slowness in a Sparse Model of Invariant Feature Detection. Neural Computation. 27: 1496-529. PMID 25973550 DOI: 10.1162/NECO_a_00743 |
1 | |||

2015 | Dong X, Wang H, Chen Z, Shi BE. Hybrid Brain Computer Interface via Bayesian integration of EEG and eye gaze International Ieee/Embs Conference On Neural Engineering, Ner. 2015: 150-153. DOI: 10.1109/NER.2015.7146582 |
1 | |||

2015 | Chandrapala TN, Shi BE, Triesch J. On the utility of sparse neural representations in adaptive behaving agents Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 2015. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2015.7280640 |
1 | |||

2015 | Wang H, Dong X, Chen Z, Shi BE. Hybrid gaze/EEG brain computer interface for robot arm control on a pick and place task Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Embs. 2015: 1476-1479. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318649 |
1 | |||

2015 | Chen Z, Shi BE. A Two-stage model for inference of target identity during 2D cursor control from natural gaze trajectories Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Embs. 2015: 474-477. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7318402 |
1 | |||

2015 | Chandrapala TN, Shi BE, Triesch J. Active maintenance of binocular correspondence leads to orientation alignment of visual receptive fields 5th Joint International Conference On Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, Icdl-Epirob 2015. 98-103. DOI: 10.1109/DEVLRN.2015.7346122 |
1 | |||

2015 | Priamikov A, Narayan V, Shi BE, Triesch J. The role of contrast sensitivity in the development of binocular vision: A computational study 5th Joint International Conference On Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, Icdl-Epirob 2015. 33-38. DOI: 10.1109/DEVLRN.2015.7345452 |
1 | |||

2015 | Jia K, Sun L, Gao S, Song Z, Shi BE. Laplacian Auto-Encoders: An explicit learning of nonlinear data manifold Neurocomputing. 160: 250-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.neucom.2015.02.023 |
1 | |||

2014 | Peng Q, Shi BE. Neural population models for perception of motion in depth. Vision Research. 101: 11-31. PMID 24814174 DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2014.04.014 |
1 | |||

2014 | Lo AHP, So RHY, Shi BE. Inferring targets from gaze Ieee International Workshop On Machine Learning For Signal Processing, Mlsp. DOI: 10.1109/MLSP.2014.6958931 |
1 | |||

2014 | Chandrapala TN, Shi BE. The generative Adaptive Subspace Self-Organizing Map Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 3790-3797. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2014.6889796 |
1 | |||

2014 | Zhang C, Zhao Y, Triesch J, Shi BE. Intrinsically motivated learning of visual motion perception and smooth pursuit Proceedings - Ieee International Conference On Robotics and Automation. 1902-1908. DOI: 10.1109/ICRA.2014.6907110 |
1 | |||

2013 | Lonini L, Forestier S, Teulière C, Zhao Y, Shi BE, Triesch J. Robust active binocular vision through intrinsically motivated learning. Frontiers in Neurorobotics. 7: 20. PMID 24223552 DOI: 10.3389/fnbot.2013.00020 |
1 | |||

2013 | Shi BE. Application of CNN to brainlike computing Chaos, Cnn, Memristors and Beyond: a Festschrift For Leon Chua. 190-201. DOI: 10.1142/9789814434805_0015 |
1 | |||

2013 | Huang B, Lo AHP, Shi BE. Integrating EEG information improves performance of gaze based cursor control International Ieee/Embs Conference On Neural Engineering, Ner. 415-418. DOI: 10.1109/NER.2013.6695960 |
1 | |||

2013 | Lonini L, Zhao Y, Chandrashekhariah P, Shi BE, Triesch J. Autonomous learning of active multi-scale binocular vision 2013 Ieee 3rd Joint International Conference On Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, Icdl 2013 - Electronic Conference Proceedings. DOI: 10.1109/DevLrn.2013.6652541 |
1 | |||

2013 | Jiang F, Fischer M, Ekenel HK, Shi BE. Combining texture and stereo disparity cues for real-time face detection Signal Processing: Image Communication. 28: 1100-1113. DOI: 10.1016/j.image.2013.07.006 |
1 | |||

2012 | Kuang X, Gibson M, Shi BE, Rucci M. Active vision during coordinated head/eye movements in a humanoid Robot Ieee Transactions On Robotics. 28: 1423-1430. DOI: 10.1109/TRO.2012.2204513 |
1 | |||

2012 | Zhou T, Dudek P, Shi BE. Development of robot self-identification based on visuomotor prediction 2012 Ieee International Conference On Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, Icdl 2012. DOI: 10.1109/DevLrn.2012.6400878 |
1 | |||

2012 | Zhao Y, Rothkopf CA, Triesch J, Shi BE. A unified model of the joint development of disparity selectivity and vergence control 2012 Ieee International Conference On Development and Learning and Epigenetic Robotics, Icdl 2012. DOI: 10.1109/DevLrn.2012.6400876 |
1 | |||

2012 | Jiang F, Ekenel HK, Shi BE. Efficient and robust integration of face detection and head pose estimation Proceedings - International Conference On Pattern Recognition. 1578-1581. |
1 | |||

2011 | Wang Y, Shi BE. Improved binocular vergence control via a neural network that maximizes an internally defined reward Ieee Transactions On Autonomous Mental Development. 3: 247-256. DOI: 10.1109/TAMD.2011.2128318 |
1 | |||

2011 | Qu C, Shi BE. The role of orientation diversity in binocular vergence control Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 2266-2272. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2011.6033511 |
1 | |||

2011 | Zhou T, Dudek P, Shi BE. Self-Organizing Neural Population Coding for improving robotic visuomotor coordination Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 1437-1444. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2011.6033393 |
1 | |||

2011 | Sun W, Shi BE. Joint development of disparity tuning and vergence control 2011 Ieee International Conference On Development and Learning, Icdl 2011. DOI: 10.1109/DEVLRN.2011.6037338 |
1 | |||

2011 | Jiang F, Shi BE. The nonlinear memristive grid Focal-Plane Sensor-Processor Chips. 209-225. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-6475-5_9 |
1 | |||

2010 | Peng Q, Shi BE. The changing disparity energy model. Vision Research. 50: 181-92. PMID 19925822 DOI: 10.1016/j.visres.2009.11.012 |
1 | |||

2010 | Wang Y, Shi BE. Autonomous development of vergence control driven by disparity energy neuron populations. Neural Computation. 22: 730-51. PMID 19925282 DOI: 10.1162/neco.2009.01-09-950 |
1 | |||

2010 | Wang X, Shi BE. GPU implemention of fast gabor filters Iscas 2010 - 2010 Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems: Nano-Bio Circuit Fabrics and Systems. 373-376. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2010.5537757 |
1 | |||

2009 | Tsang EK, Shi BE. Disparity estimation by pooling evidence from energy neurons. Ieee Transactions On Neural Networks / a Publication of the Ieee Neural Networks Council. 20: 1772-82. PMID 19789111 DOI: 10.1109/TNN.2009.2030370 |
1 | |||

2009 | Meng Y, Tsag EKC, Lam SYM, Shi BE. The HKUST multimap system for active vision International Journal of Humanoid Robotics. 6: 505-536. DOI: 10.1142/S0219843609001838 |
1 | |||

2009 | Meng Y, Shi BE. Normalized phase shift motion energy neuron populations for image velocity estimation Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 2090-2097. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2009.5178957 |
1 | |||

2009 | Jiang F, Shi BE. The memristive grid outperforms the resistive grid for edge preserving smoothing Ecctd 2009 - European Conference On Circuit Theory and Design Conference Program. 181-184. DOI: 10.1109/ECCTD.2009.5274947 |
1 | |||

2009 | Wang Y, Shi BE. Maximizing neural responses leads to sensori-motor coordination of binocular vergence 2009 Ieee Symposium Computational Intelligence For Multimedia Signal and Vision Processing, Cimsvp 2009 - Proceedings. 14-20. DOI: 10.1109/CIMSVP.2009.4925642 |
1 | |||

2009 | Wang Y, Wu T, Orchard G, Dudek P, Rucci M, Shi BE. Hebbian learning of visually directed reaching by a robot arm 2009 Ieee Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference, Biocas 2009. 205-208. DOI: 10.1109/BIOCAS.2009.5372049 |
1 | |||

2009 | Zhao LY, Shi BE. Integrating contrast invariance into a model for cortical orientation map formation Neurocomputing. 72: 1887-1899. DOI: 10.1016/j.neucom.2008.06.003 |
1 | |||

2009 | Shi BE. The effect of mismatch in current- Versus voltage-mode resistive grids International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications. 37: 53-65. DOI: 10.1002/cta.494 |
1 | |||

2009 | Tsang EKC, Shi BE. Estimating disparity with confidence from energy neurons Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20 - Proceedings of the 2007 Conference. |
1 | |||

2009 | Gao M, Shi BE. Learning mobile robot control for obstacle avoidance based on motion energy neurons Proceedings of 2009 7th Asian Control Conference, Ascc 2009. 994-999. |
1 | |||

2009 | Meng Y, Shi BE. Extending phase mechanism to differential motion opponency for motion pop-out Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22 - Proceedings of the 2009 Conference. 1267-1275. |
1 | |||

2009 | Lam SYM, Shi BE. Extending position/phase-shift tuning to motion energy neurons improves velocity discrimination Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20 - Proceedings of the 2007 Conference. |
1 | |||

2008 | Meng Y, Shi BE. Adaptive gain control for spike-based map communication in a neuromorphic vision system. Ieee Transactions On Neural Networks / a Publication of the Ieee Neural Networks Council. 19: 1010-21. PMID 18541501 DOI: 10.1109/TNN.2007.915113 |
1 | |||

2008 | Tsang EK, Shi BE. Normalization enables robust validation of disparity estimates from neural populations. Neural Computation. 20: 2464-90. PMID 18386980 DOI: 10.1162/neco.2008.05-07-532 |
1 | |||

2008 | Tsang EKC, Lam SYM, Meng Y, Shi BE. Neuromorphic implementation of active gaze and vergence control Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 1076-1079. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2008.4541608 |
1 | |||

2008 | Lau JHY, Shi BE. Improved illumination invariance using a color edge representation based on double opponent neurons Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 2735-2741. DOI: 10.1109/IJCNN.2008.4634182 |
1 | |||

2008 | Yang Y, Shi BE. A V2 neuron-based model for salient point detection Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. 192-195. DOI: 10.1109/CNNA.2008.4588676 |
1 | |||

2008 | Tsang EKC, Lam SYM, Meng Y, Shi BE. Robotic gaze and vergence control via disparity energy neurons Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. 3. DOI: 10.1109/CNNA.2008.458863 |
1 | |||

2008 | Guo X, Shi BE. A two stage energy model exhibiting selectivity to changing disparity Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). 5263: 47-54. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-87732-5-6 |
1 | |||

2007 | Lam SY, Shi BE. Recursive anisotropic 2-D Gaussian filtering based on a triple-axis decomposition. Ieee Transactions On Image Processing : a Publication of the Ieee Signal Processing Society. 16: 1925-30. PMID 17605390 DOI: 10.1109/TIP.2007.896673 |
1 | |||

2007 | Merolla PA, Arthur JV, Shi BE, Boahen KA. Expandable networks for neuromorphic chips Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 54: 301-311. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2006.887474 |
1 | |||

2007 | Tsang EKC, Shi BE. Probabilistic modelling of phase-tuned disparity energy neuron populations Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 2926-2929. |
1 | |||

2007 | Shi BE, Rekeczky C. Sensor integration in autonomous systems Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 601-604. |
1 | |||

2007 | Lam SYM, Shi BE. Active visual tracking of heading direction by combining motion energy neurons Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3171-3174. |
1 | |||

2006 | Shi BE, Tsang EKC, Au PSP. An ON-OFF temporal filter circuit for computing motion energy Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems Ii: Express Briefs. 53: 951-955. DOI: 10.1109/TCSII.2006.879099 |
1 | |||

2006 | Shi BE. Estimating the CNN steady state using forward-backward recursions Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. DOI: 10.1109/CNNA.2006.341623 |
1 | |||

2006 | Shi BE, Tsang EKC, Lam SYM, Meng Y. Computing and combining the outputs of cortically inspired feature maps Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. DOI: 10.1109/CNNA.2006.341592 |
1 | |||

2006 | Fung CH, Shi BE. A biomimetic active stereo system with torsional control and saccade-like speed Proceedings of the First Ieee/Ras-Embs International Conference On Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, 2006, Biorob 2006. 2006: 389-392. DOI: 10.1109/BIOROB.2006.1639118 |
1 | |||

2006 | Shi BE. An eight layer cellular neural network for spatio-temporal image filtering International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications. 34: 141-164. DOI: 10.1002/cta.347 |
1 | |||

2006 | Tsang EKC, Shi BE. Active binocular gaze control inspired by superior colliculus Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 7-14. |
1 | |||

2006 | Cheung OYH, Leong PHW, Tsang EKC, Shi BE. A scalable FPGA implementation of cellular neural networks for gabor-type filtering Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 15-20. |
1 | |||

2006 | Meng Y, Lam SYM, Tsang EKC, Shi BE. An efficient spike-based communication protocol for neurally inspired feature maps Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 2757-2764. |
1 | |||

2006 | Lam SYM, Tsang EKC, Meng Y, Shi BE. Neuromorphic translational ego-motion estimation using log-polar motion energy Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 5204-5211. |
1 | |||

2006 | Shi BE, Tsang EKC, Lam SYM, Meng Y. Expandable hardware for computing cortical feature maps Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3606-3609. |
1 | |||

2005 | Choi TYW, Merolla PA, Arthur JV, Boahen KA, Shi BE. Neuromorphic implementation of orientation hypercolumns Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 52: 1049-1060. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2005.849136 |
1 | |||

2005 | Lam SYM, Shi BE, Boahen KA. Self-organized cortical map formation by guiding connections Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 5230-5233. DOI: 10.1109/ISCAS.2005.1465814 |
1 | |||

2005 | Cheung OYH, Leong PHW, Tsang EKC, Shi BE. Implementation of Gabor-type filters on field programmable gate arrays Proceedings - 2005 Ieee International Conference On Field Programmable Technology. 2005: 327-328. DOI: 10.1109/FPT.2005.1568584 |
1 | |||

2004 | Tsang EK, Shi BE. A preference for phase-based disparity in a neuromorphic implementation of the binocular energy model. Neural Computation. 16: 1579-600. PMID 15228746 DOI: 10.1162/089976604774201604 |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE. Oriented spatial pattern formation in a four layer CMOS cellular neural network International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos in Applied Sciences and Engineering. 14: 1209-1221. DOI: 10.1142/S021812740400982X |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE, Arena P, Zarandy A. Guest editorial Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 51: 849-850. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.828222 |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE, Luo T. Spatial pattern formation via reaction-diffusion dynamics in 32 × 32 × 4 CNN chip Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 51: 939-947. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2004.827628 |
1 | |||

2004 | Choi TYW, Shi BE, Boahen KA. An ON-OFF orientation selective address event representation image transceiver chip Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 51: 342-353. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2003.822551 |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE. A CNN model of multi-dimensional stimulus selectivity in primary visual cortex Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 3: 1741-1746. |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE, Luo BT. A 32 × 32 four layer reaction-diffusion CNN chip Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3. |
1 | |||

2004 | Tsang EKC, Shi BE. A neuromorphic multi-chip model of a disparity selective complex cell Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. |
1 | |||

2004 | Choi TYW, Shi BE, Boahen KA. A multi-chip implementation of cortical orientation hypercolumns Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3: III13-III16. |
1 | |||

2004 | Shi BE, Tsang EKC, Au PSP. An on-off temporal filter circuit for visual motion analysis Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3. |
1 | |||

2003 | Shi BE. Pseudoresistive networks and the pseudovoltage-based cocontent Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 50: 56-64. DOI: 10.1109/TCSI.2002.807511 |
1 | |||

2003 | Shi BE. Cortically-inspired Visual Processing with a Four Layer Cellular Neural Network Proceedings of the International Joint Conference On Neural Networks. 2: 1506-1511. |
1 | |||

2003 | Choi TYW, Shi BE, Boahen K. An orientation selective 2D AER transceiver Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 4: IV800-IV803. |
1 | |||

2002 | Shi BE, Boahen K. Competitively coupled orientation selective cellular neural networks Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 49: 388-394. DOI: 10.1109/81.989177 |
1 | |||

2002 | Ortega R, Shi BE. A note on passivity of nonlinear RL and RC circuits Ifac Proceedings Volumes (Ifac-Papersonline). 15: 31-35. |
1 | |||

2002 | Shi BE, Choi TYW, Boahen K. On-off differential current-mode circuits for Gabor-type spatial filtering Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 2: II/724-II/727. |
1 | |||

2001 | Shi BE. CNN models of current mode neuromorphic networks Proceedings - Ieee International Symposium On Circuits and Systems. 3: 337-340. |
1 | |||

2001 | Lai CS, Shi BE. A one-pass strategy for keyword spotting and verification Icassp, Ieee International Conference On Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings. 1: 377-380. |
1 | |||

2001 | Chau CK, Lai CS, Shi BE. Feature vs. model based vocal tract length normalization for a speech recognition-based interactive toy Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics). 2252: 134-143. |
1 | |||

2000 | Lu Z, Shi BE. Subpixel resolution binocular visual tracking using analog VLSI vision sensors Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 47: 1468-1475. DOI: 10.1109/82.899641 |
1 | |||

2000 | Shi BE. A low-power orientation-selective vision sensor Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 47: 435-440. DOI: 10.1109/82.842111 |
1 | |||

2000 | Shi BE, Gao L, Lau KK. A resistor/transconductor network for linear fitting Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 47: 322-331. DOI: 10.1109/82.839668 |
1 | |||

2000 | Yao K, Shi BE, Fung P, Cao Z. Log-add approximation on-line noise compensation method adopting robust decision rules for robust digits recognition Chinese Journal of Electronics. 9: 278-283. |
1 | |||

1999 | Hui KF, Shi BE. Distortion in analog VLSI networks for image filtering Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 46: 1161-1171. DOI: 10.1109/81.795829 |
1 | |||

1999 | Shi BE. A one-dimensional cmos focal plane array for gabor-type image filtering Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 46: 323-327. DOI: 10.1109/81.747213 |
1 | |||

1999 | Shi BE. Focal plane implementation of 2D steerable and scalable Gabor-type filters Journal of Vlsi Signal Processing Systems For Signal, Image, and Video Technology. 23: 319-334. |
1 | |||

1998 | Shi BE. Gabor-type filtering in space and time with cellular neural networks Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 45: 121-132. DOI: 10.1109/81.661672 |
1 | |||

1998 | Shi BE, Hui KF. An analog VLSI neural network for phase based machine vision Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. 726-732. |
1 | |||

1998 | Shi BE, Roska T, Chua LO. Estimating optical flow with cellular neural networks International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications. 26: 343-364. |
1 | |||

1994 | Shi BE. Order statistic filtering with cellular neural networks Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. 441-444. |
1 | |||

1994 | Shi BE, Roska T, Chua LO. Random parameter variation in analog VLSI neural networks for linear image filtering Ieee International Conference On Neural Networks - Conference Proceedings. 3: 1917-1922. |
1 | |||

1994 | Shi BE, Wendsche S, Roska T, Chua LO. Random variations in CNN templates: Theoretical models and empirical studies Proceedings of the Ieee International Workshop On Cellular Neural Networks and Their Applications. 27-32. |
1 | |||

1993 | Shi BE, Chua LO, Roska T. Design of Linear Cellular Neural Networks for Motion Sensitive Filtering Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems Ii: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 40: 320-331. DOI: 10.1109/82.227372 |
1 | |||

1992 | Shi BE, Chua LO. Resistive Grid Image Filtering: Input/Output Analysis via the CNN Framework Ieee Transactions On Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications. 39: 531-548. DOI: 10.1109/81.257286 |
1 | |||

Show low-probability matches. |