Douglas W. Schemske, PhD - Publications

Affiliations: 
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 
Area:
plant evolutionary ecology, plant-animal interactions

101 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2019 Sanderson BJ, Park S, Jameel MI, Kraft JC, Thomashow MF, Schemske DW, Oakley CG. Genetic and physiological mechanisms of freezing tolerance in locally adapted populations of a winter annual. American Journal of Botany. PMID 31762012 DOI: 10.1002/Ajb2.1385  0.64
2019 Oakley CG, Lundemo S, Ågren J, Schemske DW. Heterosis is common and inbreeding depression absent in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. PMID 30883966 DOI: 10.1111/Jeb.13441  0.64
2017 Oakley CG, Savage L, Lotz S, Rudd Larson G, Thomashow MF, Kramer DM, Schemske DW. Genetic basis of photosynthetic responses to cold in two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of Experimental Botany. PMID 29300935 DOI: 10.1093/Jxb/Erx437  0.64
2017 Dittmar EL, Schemske DW. The edaphic environment mediates flowering-time differentiation between adjacent populations of Leptosiphon parviflorus. The Journal of Heredity. PMID 29045702 DOI: 10.1093/Jhered/Esx090  0.68
2016 Ågren J, Oakley CG, Lundemo S, Schemske DW. Adaptive divergence in flowering time among natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: estimates of selection and QTL mapping. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. PMID 27859214 DOI: 10.1111/Evo.13126  0.64
2016 Dittmar EL, Oakley CG, Conner JK, Gould BA, Schemske DW. Factors influencing the effect size distribution of adaptive substitutions. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / the Royal Society. 283. PMID 27053750 DOI: 10.1098/Rspb.2015.3065  1
2015 Oakley CG, Spoelhof JP, Schemske DW. Increased heterosis in selfing populations of a perennial forb. Aob Plants. PMID 26507567 DOI: 10.1093/Aobpla/Plv122  0.64
2015 Chen GF, Schemske DW. Ecological differentiation and local adaptation in two sister species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae). Ecology. 96: 440-9. PMID 26240865 DOI: 10.1890/14-0428.1  0.52
2015 Oakley CG, Ågren J, Schemske DW. Heterosis and outbreeding depression in crosses between natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. Heredity. 115: 73-82. PMID 26059971 DOI: 10.1038/Hdy.2015.18  1
2015 Mittelbach GG, Schemske DW. Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on community assembly. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 30: 241-7. PMID 25804867 DOI: 10.1016/J.Tree.2015.02.008  1
2015 Wade MJ, Schemske DW. 2014 American Society of Naturalists awards. The American Naturalist. 185: iii-v. PMID 25560564 DOI: 10.1086/679278  1
2015 Chen GF, Schemske DW. Ecological differentiation and local adaptation in two sister species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae) Ecology. 96: 440-449.  1
2014 Oakley CG, Ågren J, Atchison RA, Schemske DW. QTL mapping of freezing tolerance: links to fitness and adaptive trade-offs. Molecular Ecology. 23: 4304-15. PMID 25039860 DOI: 10.1111/Mec.12862  1
2014 Dittmar EL, Oakley CG, Ågren J, Schemske DW. Flowering time QTL in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for their adaptive value. Molecular Ecology. 23: 4291-303. PMID 25039363 DOI: 10.1111/Mec.12857  1
2013 Ã…grena J, Oakley CG, McKay JK, Lovell JT, Schemske DW. Genetic mapping of adaptation reveals fitness tradeoffs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110: 21077-82. PMID 24324156 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.1316773110  1
2013 Grillo MA, Li C, Hammond M, Wang L, Schemske DW. Genetic architecture of flowering time differentiation between locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana. The New Phytologist. 197: 1321-31. PMID 23311994 DOI: 10.1111/Nph.12109  1
2012 Evans JA, Davis AS, Raghu S, Ragavendran A, Landis DA, Schemske DW. The importance of space, time, and stochasticity to the demography and management of Alliaria petiolata. Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. 22: 1497-511. PMID 22908709 DOI: 10.1890/11-1291.1  1
2012 Agren J, Schemske DW. Reciprocal transplants demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range. The New Phytologist. 194: 1112-22. PMID 22432639 DOI: 10.1111/J.1469-8137.2012.04112.X  1
2012 Robertson BA, Rice RA, Scott Sillett T, Ribic CA, Babcock BA, Landis DA, Herkert JR, Fletcher RJ, Fontaine JJ, Doran PJ, Schemske DW. Are agrofuels a conservation threat or opportunity for grassland birds in the United States? Condor. 114: 679-688. DOI: 10.1525/Cond.2012.110136  1
2012 Robertson BA, Porter C, Landis DA, Schemske DW. Agroenergy Crops Influence the Diversity, Biomass, and Guild Structure of Terrestrial Arthropod Communities Bioenergy Research. 5: 179-188. DOI: 10.1007/S12155-011-9161-3  1
2011 Robertson BA, Doran PJ, Loomis ER, Robertson JR, Schemske DW. Avian use of perennial biomass feedstocks as post-breeding and migratory stopover habitat. Plos One. 6: e16941. PMID 21390274 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0016941  1
2011 Fletcher RJ, Robertson BA, Evans J, Doran PJ, Alavalapati JRR, Schemske DW. Biodiversity conservation in the era of biofuels: Risks and opportunities Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 9: 161-168. DOI: 10.1890/090091  1
2011 Robertson BA, Doran PJ, Loomis LR, Robertson JR, Schemske DW. Perennial biomass feedstocks enhance avian diversity Gcb Bioenergy. 3: 235-246. DOI: 10.1111/J.1757-1707.2010.01080.X  1
2011 Kay KM, Ward KL, Watt LR, Schemske DW. Plant speciation Serpentine: the Evolution and Ecology of a Model System. 71-95.  1
2010 Horvitz CC, Coulson T, Tuljapurkar S, Schemske DW. A new way to integrate selection when both demography and selection gradients vary over time. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 171: 945-959. PMID 25089083 DOI: 10.1086/657141  1
2010 Schemske DW. Adaptation and the origin of species. The American Naturalist. 176: S4-S25. PMID 21043779 DOI: 10.1086/657060  1
2010 Schemske DW. Darwinian thinking: 150 years after The Origin. The American Naturalist. 176: S1-3. PMID 21043777 DOI: 10.1086/657362  1
2010 Sobel JM, Chen GF, Watt LR, Schemske DW. The biology of speciation. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 64: 295-315. PMID 19891628 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2009.00877.X  1
2010 Ahern RG, Landis DA, Reznicek AA, Schemske DW. Spread of exotic plants in the landscape: The role of time, growth habit, and history of invasiveness Biological Invasions. 12: 3157-3169. DOI: 10.1007/S10530-010-9707-X  1
2009 Fenster CB, Martén-Rodriguez S, Schemske DW. Pollination syndromes and the evolution of floral diversity in iochroma (solanaceae). Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 63: 2758-62; discussion . PMID 19486146 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2009.00730.X  1
2009 Grillo MA, Li C, Fowlkes AM, Briggeman TM, Zhou A, Schemske DW, Sang T. Genetic architecture for the adaptive origin of annual wild rice, oryza nivara. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 63: 870-83. PMID 19236476 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2008.00602.X  1
2009 Worley AC, Ghazvini H, Schemske DW. A phylogeny of the genus polemonium based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers Systematic Botany. 34: 149-161. DOI: 10.1600/036364409787602267  1
2009 Schemske DW, Mittelbach GG, Cornell HV, Sobel JM, Roy K. Is there a latitudinal gradient in the importance of biotic interactions? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 40: 245-269. DOI: 10.1146/Annurev.Ecolsys.39.110707.173430  1
2008 Angert AL, Bradshaw HD, Schemske DW. Using experimental evolution to investigate geographic range limits in monkeyflowers. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 62: 2660-75. PMID 18647337 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2008.00471.X  1
2008 Kay KM, Schemske DW. Natural selection reinforces speciation in a radiation of neotropical rainforest plants. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 62: 2628-42. PMID 18637960 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2008.00463.X  1
2007 Schemske DW, Bierzychudek P. Spatial differentiation for flower color in the desert annual Linanthus parryae: was Wright right? Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 61: 2528-43. PMID 17894812 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.2007.00219.X  1
2007 Mittelbach GG, Schemske DW, Cornell HV, Allen AP, Brown JM, Bush MB, Harrison SP, Hurlbert AH, Knowlton N, Lessios HA, McCain CM, McCune AR, McDade LA, McPeek MA, Near TJ, et al. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecology Letters. 10: 315-31. PMID 17355570 DOI: 10.1111/J.1461-0248.2007.01020.X  1
2007 Soltis DE, Soltis PS, Schemske DW, Hancock JF, Thompson JN, Husband BC, Judd WS. Autopolyploidy in angiosperms: Have we grossly underestimated the number of species? Taxon. 56: 13-30. DOI: 10.2307/25065732  1
2007 Agrawal AA, Ackerly DD, Adler F, Arnold AE, Cáceres C, Doak DF, Post E, Hudson PJ, Maron J, Mooney KA, Power M, Schemske D, Stachowicz J, Strauss S, Turner MG, et al. Filling key gaps in population and community ecology Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5: 145-152. DOI: 10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[145:Fkgipa]2.0.Co;2  1
2005 Kay KM, Reeves PA, Olmstead RG, Schemske DW. Rapid speciation and the evolution of hummingbird pollination in neotropical Costus subgenus Costus (Costaceae): evidence from nrDNA ITS and ETS sequences. American Journal of Botany. 92: 1899-910. PMID 21646107 DOI: 10.3732/Ajb.92.11.1899  1
2005 Angert AL, Schemske DW. The evolution of species' distributions: reciprocal transplants across the elevation ranges of Mimulus cardinalis and M. lewisii. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 59: 1671-84. PMID 16329239 DOI: 10.1111/J.0014-3820.2005.Tb01817.X  1
2004 Kay KM, Schemske DW. Geographic patterns in plant-pollinator mutualistic networks: Comment Ecology. 85: 875-878. DOI: 10.1890/03-3016  1
2003 Bradshaw HD, Schemske DW. Allele substitution at a flower colour locus produces a pollinator shift in monkeyflowers. Nature. 426: 176-8. PMID 14614505 DOI: 10.1038/Nature02106  1
2003 Ramsey J, Bradshaw HD, Schemske DW. Components of reproductive isolation between the monkeyflowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae). Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 57: 1520-34. PMID 12940357 DOI: 10.1111/J.0014-3820.2003.Tb00360.X  1
2003 Kay KM, Schemske DW. Pollinator Assemblages and Visitation Rates for 11 Species of Neotropical Costus (Costaceae) Biotropica. 35: 198-207. DOI: 10.1111/J.1744-7429.2003.Tb00279.X  1
2002 Husband BC, Schemske DW, Burton TL, Goodwillie C. Pollen competition as a unilateral reproductive barrier between sympatric diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / the Royal Society. 269: 2565-71. PMID 12573071 DOI: 10.1098/Rspb.2002.2196  1
2002 Ramsey J, Schemske DW. Neopolyploidy in flowering plants Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 33: 589-639. DOI: 10.1146/Annurev.Ecolsys.33.010802.150437  1
2002 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Effects of plant size, leaf herbivory, local competition and fruit production on survival, growth and future reproduction of a neotropical herb Journal of Ecology. 90: 279-290. DOI: 10.1046/J.1365-2745.2001.00660.X  1
2001 Turelli M, Schemske DW, Bierzychudek P. Stable two-allele polymorphisms maintained by fluctuating fitnesses and seed banks: protecting the blues in Linanthus parryae. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 55: 1283-98. PMID 11525453 DOI: 10.1111/J.0014-3820.2001.Tb00651.X  1
2001 Schemske DW, Bierzychudek P. Perspective: Evolution of flower color in the desert annual Linanthus parryae: Wright revisited. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 55: 1269-82. PMID 11525452 DOI: 10.1111/J.0014-3820.2001.Tb00650.X  1
2000 Husband BC, Schemske DW. Ecological mechanisms of reproductive isolation between diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium Journal of Ecology. 88: 689-701. DOI: 10.1046/J.1365-2745.2000.00481.X  1
1999 Schemske DW, Bradshaw HD. Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in monkeyflowers (Mimulus). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 96: 11910-5. PMID 10518550 DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.96.21.11910  1
1998 Husband BC, Schemske DW. Cytotype distribution at a diploid-tetraploid contact zone in Chamerion (Epilobium) angustifolium (Onagraceae). American Journal of Botany. 85: 1688-94. PMID 21719413 DOI: 10.2307/2446502  1
1998 Bradshaw HD, Otto KG, Frewen BE, McKay JK, Schemske DW. Quantitative trait loci affecting differences in floral morphology between two species of monkeyflower (Mimulus). Genetics. 149: 367-82. PMID 9584110  1
1998 Corff JLE, Ågren J, Schemske DW. Floral display, pollinator discrimination, and female reproductive success in two monoecious Begonia species Ecology. 79: 1610-1619. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[1610:Fdpdaf]2.0.Co;2  1
1998 Bishop JG, Schemske DW. Variation in flowering phenology and its consequences for lupines colonizing Mount St. Helens Ecology. 79: 534-546. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[0534:Vifpai]2.0.Co;2  1
1998 Ramsey J, Schemske DW. Pathways, mechanisms, and rates of polyploid formation in flowering plants Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 29: 467-501. DOI: 10.1146/Annurev.Ecolsys.29.1.467  1
1997 Husband BC, Schemske DW. THE EFFECT OF INBREEDING IN DIPLOID AND TETRAPLOID POPULATIONS OF EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM (ONAGRACEAE): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE GENETIC BASIS OF INBREEDING DEPRESSION. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 51: 737-746. PMID 28568601 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1997.Tb03657.X  1
1997 Wilbert SM, Schemske DW, Bradshaw HD. Floral anthocyanins from two monkeyflower species with different pollinators Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 25: 437-443. DOI: 10.1016/S0305-1978(97)00027-6  1
1997 Husband BC, Schemske DW. The effect of inbreeding in diploid and tetraploid populations of Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae): Implications for the genetic basis of inbreeding depression Evolution. 51: 737-746.  1
1996 Husband BC, Schemske DW. EVOLUTION OF THE MAGNITUDE AND TIMING OF INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN PLANTS. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 50: 54-70. PMID 28568860 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1996.Tb04472.X  1
1996 Husband BC, Schemske DW. Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants Evolution. 50: 54-70.  1
1995 Ågren J, Schemske DW. SEX ALLOCATION IN THE MONOECIOUS HERB BEGONIA SEMIOVATA. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 49: 121-130. PMID 28593678 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1995.Tb05964.X  0.64
1995 Schemske DW, Ågren J. DECEIT POLLINATION AND SELECTION ON FEMALE FLOWER SIZE IN BEGONIA INVOLUCRATA: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 49: 207-214. PMID 28593671 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1995.Tb05972.X  0.64
1995 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Spatiotemporal variation in demographic transitions of a tropical understory herb: Projection matrix analysis Ecological Monographs. 65: 155-192. DOI: 10.2307/2937136  1
1995 Husband BC, Schemske DW. Mangitude and timing of inbreeding depression in a diploid population of Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae) Heredity. 75: 206-215. DOI: 10.1038/Hdy.1995.125  1
1995 Bradshaw HD, Wilbert SM, Otto KG, Schemske DW. Genetic mapping of floral traits associated with reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus) Nature. 376: 762-765. DOI: 10.1038/376762A0  1
1995 Parker IM, Nakamura RR, Schemske DW. Reproductive allocation and the fitness consequences of selfing in two sympatric species of Epilobium (Onagraceae) with contrasting mating systems American Journal of Botany. 82: 1007-1016. DOI: 10.1002/J.1537-2197.1995.Tb11565.X  1
1995 Schemske DW, Agren J. Deceit pollination and selection on female flower size in Begonia involucrata: An experimental approach Evolution. 49: 207-214.  1
1995 Agren J, Schemske DW. Sex allocation in the monoecious herb Begonia semiovata Evolution. 49: 121-130.  1
1994 Schemske DW, Husband BC, Ruckelshaus MH, Goodwillie C, Parker IM, Bishop JG. Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants Ecology. 75: 584-606. DOI: 10.2307/1941718  1
1994 Agren J, Schemske DW. Evolution of trichome number in a naturalized population of Brassica rapa American Naturalist. 143: 1-13. DOI: 10.1086/285593  1
1994 Miller TE, Winn AA, Schemske DW. The effects of density and spatial distribution on selection for emergence time in Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae) American Journal of Botany. 81: 1-6. DOI: 10.1002/J.1537-2197.1994.Tb15401.X  1
1994 Lande R, Schemske DW, Schultz ST. High inbreeding depression, selective interference among loci, and the threshold selfing rate for purging recessive lethal mutations Evolution. 48: 965-978.  1
1994 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Effects of dispersers, gaps, and predators on dormancy and seedling emergence in a tropical herb Ecology. 75: 1949-1958.  1
1993 Ågren J, Schemske DW. OUTCROSSING RATE AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN TWO ANNUAL MONOECIOUS HERBS, BEGONIA HIRSUTA AND B. SEMIOVATA. Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 47: 125-135. PMID 28568096 DOI: 10.1111/J.1558-5646.1993.Tb01204.X  0.64
1993 Agren J, Schemske DW. The cost of defense against herbivores: an experimental study of trichome production in Brassica rapa. The American Naturalist. 141: 338-50. PMID 19426086 DOI: 10.1086/285477  1
1993 Agren J, Schemske DW. Outcrossing rate and inbreeding depression in two annual monoecious herbs, Begonia hirsuta and B. semiovata Evolution. 47: 125-135.  1
1992 Agren J, Schemske DW. Artificial selection on trichome number in Brassica rapa. Tag. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. 83: 673-8. PMID 24202739 DOI: 10.1007/BF00226683  1
1992 Sork VL, Schemske DW. Fitness consequences of mixed-donor pollen loads in the annual legume Chamaecrista fasciculata American Journal of Botany. 79: 508-515. DOI: 10.1002/J.1537-2197.1992.Tb14586.X  1
1991 Kingsolver JG, Schemske DW. Path analyses of selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 6: 276-80. PMID 21232481 DOI: 10.1016/0169-5347(91)90004-H  1
1991 Agren J, Schemske DW. Pollination by deceit in a neotropical monoecious herb, Begonia involucrata Biotropica. 23: 235-241. DOI: 10.2307/2388200  1
1990 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Spatiotemporal variation in insect mutualists of a neotropical herb Ecology. 71: 1085-1097. DOI: 10.2307/1937377  1
1990 Miller TE, Schemske DW. An experimental study of competitive performance in Brassica rapa (Cruciferae) American Journal of Botany. 77: 993-998. DOI: 10.1002/J.1537-2197.1990.Tb13594.X  1
1989 Schemske DW, Horvitz CC. Temporal variation in selection on a floral character Evolution. 43: 461-465.  1
1988 Schemske DW, Horvitz CC. Plant-animal interactions and fruit production in a neotropical herb: a path analysis Ecology. 69: 1128-1137. DOI: 10.2307/1941267  1
1988 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. A test of the pollinator limitation hypothesis for a neotropical herb Ecology. 69: 200-206.  1
1988 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Demographic cost of reproduction in a neotropical herb: an experimental field study Ecology. 69: 1741-1745.  1
1987 Charlesworth D, Schemske DW, Sork VL. The evolution of plant reproductive characters; sexual versus natural selection. Experientia. Supplementum. 55: 317-35. PMID 2961602 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-0348-6273-8_14  1
1986 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Ant-nest soil and seedling growth in a neotropical ant-dispersed herb Oecologia. 70: 318-320. DOI: 10.1007/BF00379258  1
1985 Schemske DW, Lande R. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression in plants. II. Empirical observations. Evolution. 39: 41-52.  1
1985 Lande R, Schemske DW. The evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression in plants. I. Genetic models. Evolution. 39: 24-40.  1
1984 Schemske DW, Horvitz CC. Variation among floral visitors in pollination ability: a precondition for mutualism specialization. Science (New York, N.Y.). 225: 519-21. PMID 17750855 DOI: 10.1126/Science.225.4661.519  1
1984 Flores S, Schemske DW. Dioecy and monoecy in the flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: ecological correlates. Biotropica. 16: 132-139. DOI: 10.2307/2387845  1
1984 Horvitz CC, Schemske DW. Effects of ants and an ant-tended herbivore on seed production of a neotropical herb. Ecology. 65: 1369-1378. DOI: 10.2307/1939117  1
1984 Kiester AR, Lande R, Schemske DW. Models of coevolution and speciation in plants and their pollinators. American Naturalist. 124: 220-243. DOI: 10.1086/284265  1
1984 Schemske DW, Lande R. Fragrance collection and territorial display by male orchid bees Animal Behaviour. 32: 935-937. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3472(84)80184-0  1
1984 Schemske DW, Pautler LP. The effects of pollen composition on fitness components in a neotropical herb Oecologia. 62: 31-36. DOI: 10.1007/BF00377369  1
1984 Schemske DW. Population structure and local selection in Impatiens pallida ( Balsaminaceae), a selfing annual. Evolution. 38: 817-832.  1
1983 Schemske DW. Breeding system and habitat effects on fitness components in three neotropical Costus ( Zingiberaceae). Evolution. 37: 523-539.  1
1982 Schemske DW. Ecological correlates of a neotropical mutualism: ant assemblages at Costus extrafloral nectaries. Ecology. 63: 932-941. DOI: 10.2307/1937233  1
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