Douglas Elliott Koshland - Publications

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 
 1987- Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, United States 
 2003- Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States 
 2009- University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 
Genetics, Microbiology Biology, Cell Biology

94 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2020 Lamothe R, Costantino L, Koshland DE. The spatial regulation of condensin activity in chromosome condensation. Genes & Development. PMID 32354834 DOI: 10.1101/gad.335471.119  1
2019 Guacci V, Chatterjee F, Robison B, Koshland DE. Communication between distinct subunit interfaces of the cohesin complex promotes its topological entrapment of DNA. Elife. 8. PMID 31162048 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.46347  1
2017 Robison B, Guacci V, Koshland D. A role for the Smc3 hinge domain in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion. Molecular Biology of the Cell. PMID 29187575 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E17-08-0511  1
2017 Bloom MS, Koshland D, Guacci V. Cohesin Function in Cohesion, Condensation and DNA Repair Is Regulated by Wpl1p via a Common Mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. PMID 29158426 DOI: 10.1534/genetics.117.300537  1
2017 Boothby TC, Tapia H, Brozena AH, Piszkiewicz S, Smith AE, Giovannini I, Rebecchi L, Pielak GJ, Koshland D, Goldstein B. Tardigrades Use Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Survive Desiccation. Molecular Cell. 65: 975-984.e5. PMID 28306513 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.02.018  1
2016 Wahba L, Costantino L, Tan FJ, Zimmer A, Koshland D. S1-DRIP-seq identifies high expression and polyA tracts as major contributors to R-loop formation. Genes & Development. 30: 1327-38. PMID 27298336 DOI: 10.1101/gad.280834.116  1
2016 Stigler J, Çamdere GÖ, Koshland DE, Greene EC. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals a Collapsed Conformational State for DNA-Bound Cohesin. Cell Reports. 15: 988-998. PMID 27117417 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.04.003  0.01
2015 Çamdere G, Guacci V, Stricklin J, Koshland D. The ATPases of cohesin interface with regulators to modulate cohesin-mediated DNA tethering. Elife. 4. PMID 26583750 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.11315  1
2015 Eng T, Guacci V, Koshland D. Interallelic complementation provides functional evidence for cohesin-cohesin interactions on DNA. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 26: 4224-35. PMID 26378250 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E15-06-0331  1
2015 Costantino L, Koshland D. The Yin and Yang of R-loop biology Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 34: 39-45. PMID 25938907 DOI: 10.1016/  1
2015 Tapia H, Young L, Fox D, Bertozzi CR, Koshland D. Increasing intracellular trehalose is sufficient to confer desiccation tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112: 6122-7. PMID 25918381 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1506415112  1
2015 Orgil O, Matityahu A, Eng T, Guacci V, Koshland D, Onn I. A conserved domain in the scc3 subunit of cohesin mediates the interaction with both mcd1 and the cohesin loader complex. Plos Genetics. 11: e1005036. PMID 25748820 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005036  1
2015 Guacci V, Stricklin J, Bloom MS, Gu? X, Bhatter M, Koshland D. A novel mechanism for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion by the ECO1 acetyltransferase. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 26: 117-33. PMID 25378582 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E14-08-1268  1
2014 Tapia H, Koshland DE. Trehalose is a versatile and long-lived chaperone for desiccation tolerance. Current Biology : Cb. 24: 2758-66. PMID 25456447 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.10.005  1
2014 Eng T, Guacci V, Koshland D. ROCC, a conserved region in cohesin's Mcd1 subunit, is essential for the proper regulation of the maintenance of cohesion and establishment of condensation. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 25: 2351-64. PMID 24966169 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E14-04-0929  1
2013 Welch AZ, Koshland DE. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Yeast (Chichester, England). 30: 501-9. PMID 24185677 DOI: 10.1002/yea.2989  1
2013 Wahba L, Gore SK, Koshland D. The homologous recombination machinery modulates the formation of RNA-DNA hybrids and associated chromosome instability Elife. 2013. PMID 23795288 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.00505  1
2013 Wahba L, Koshland D. The Rs of biology: R-Loops and the regulation of regulators Molecular Cell. 50: 611-612. PMID 23746348 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.05.024  1
2013 Welch AZ, Gibney PA, Botstein D, Koshland DE. TOR and RAS pathways regulate desiccation tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24: 115-28. PMID 23171550 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0524  1
2012 Tan FJ, Hoang ML, Koshland D. DNA resection at chromosome breaks promotes genome stability by constraining non-allelic homologous recombination Plos Genetics. 8. PMID 22479212 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002633  1
2012 Guacci V, Koshland D. Cohesin-independent segregation of sister chromatids in budding yeast Molecular Biology of the Cell. 23: 729-739. PMID 22190734 DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-08-0696  1
2011 Wahba L, Amon JD, Koshland D, Vuica-Ross M. RNase H and Multiple RNA Biogenesis Factors Cooperate to Prevent RNA:DNA Hybrids from Generating Genome Instability Molecular Cell. 44: 978-988. PMID 22195970 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.10.017  1
2011 Calahan D, Dunham M, DeSevo C, Koshland DE. Genetic analysis of desiccation tolerance in Sachharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 189: 507-19. PMID 21840858 DOI: 10.1534/genetics.111.130369  0.01
2011 Onn I, Koshland D. In vitro assembly of physiological cohesin/DNA complexes Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108: 12198-12205. PMID 21670264 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1107504108  1
2010 Hoang ML, Tan FJ, Lai DC, Celniker SE, Hoskins RA, Dunham MJ, Zheng Y, Koshland D. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination. Plos Genetics. 6: e1001228. PMID 21151956 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001228  1
2010 Heidinger-Pauli JM, Onn I, Koshland D. Genetic evidence that the acetylation of the Smc3p subunit of cohesin modulates its ATP-bound state to promote cohesion establishment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genetics. 185: 1249-1256. PMID 20498298 DOI: 10.1534/genetics.110.116871  1
2010 Heidinger-Pauli JM, Mert O, Davenport C, Guacci V, Koshland D. Systematic Reduction of Cohesin Differentially Affects Chromosome Segregation, Condensation, and DNA Repair Current Biology. 20: 957-963. PMID 20451387 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.04.018  1
2009 Onn I, Guacci V, Koshland DE. The zinc finger of Eco1 enhances its acetyltransferase activity during sister chromatid cohesion. Nucleic Acids Research. 37: 6126-34. PMID 19692582 DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkp656  1
2009 Martin OC, DeSevo CG, Guo BZ, Koshland DE, Dunham MJ, Zheng Y. Telomere behavior in a hybrid yeast. Cell Research. 19: 910-2. PMID 19506581 DOI: 10.1038/cr.2009.65  1
2009 Heidinger-Pauli JM, Unal E, Koshland D. Distinct targets of the Eco1 acetyltransferase modulate cohesion in S phase and in response to DNA damage. Molecular Cell. 34: 311-21. PMID 19450529 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.04.008  1
2008 Unal E, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Kim W, Guacci V, Onn I, Gygi SP, Koshland DE. A molecular determinant for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Science (New York, N.Y.). 321: 566-9. PMID 18653894 DOI: 10.1126/science.1157880  1
2008 Onn I, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Guacci V, Unal E, Koshland DE. Sister chromatid cohesion: a simple concept with a complex reality. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 24: 105-29. PMID 18616427 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.24.110707.175350  1
2008 Heidinger-Pauli JM, Unal E, Guacci V, Koshland D. The kleisin subunit of cohesin dictates damage-induced cohesion. Molecular Cell. 31: 47-56. PMID 18614046 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2008.06.005  1
2008 Surcel A, Koshland D, Ma H, Simpson RT. Cohesin interaction with centromeric minichromosomes shows a multi-complex rod-shaped structure. Plos One. 3: e2453. PMID 18545699 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002453  1
2007 Unal E, Heidinger-Pauli JM, Koshland D. DNA double-strand breaks trigger genome-wide sister-chromatid cohesion through Eco1 (Ctf7). Science (New York, N.Y.). 317: 245-8. PMID 17626885 DOI: 10.1126/science.1140637  1
2007 Yu HG, Koshland D. The Aurora kinase Ipl1 maintains the centromeric localization of PP2A to protect cohesin during meiosis Journal of Cell Biology. 176: 911-918. PMID 17371833 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200609153  1
2007 Milutinovich M, Unal E, Ward C, Skibbens RV, Koshland D. A multi-step pathway for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. Plos Genetics. 3: e12. PMID 17238288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030012  1
2005 Yu HG, Koshland D. Chromosome morphogenesis: Condensin-dependent cohesin removal during meiosis Cell. 123: 397-407. PMID 16269332 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.014  1
2005 Huang CE, Milutinovich M, Koshland D. Rings, bracelet or snaps: fashionable alternatives for Smc complexes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 360: 537-42. PMID 15897179 DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1609  1
2004 Ünal E, Arbel-Eden A, Sattler U, Shroff R, Lichten M, Haber JE, Koshland D. DNA damage response pathway uses histone modification to assemble a double-strand break-specific cohesin domain Molecular Cell. 16: 991-1002. PMID 15610741 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.11.027  1
2004 Glynn EF, Megee PC, Yu HG, Mistrot C, Unal E, Koshland DE, DeRisi JL, Gerton JL. Genome-wide mapping of the cohesin complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plos Biology. 2: E259. PMID 15309048 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020259  1
2004 Weber SA, Gerton JL, Polancic JE, DeRisi JL, Koshland D, Megee PC. The kinetochore is an enhancer of pericentric cohesin binding. Plos Biology. 2: E260. PMID 15309047 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020260  1
2004 Lavoie BD, Hogan E, Koshland D. In vivo requirements for rDNA chromosome condensation reveal two cell-cycle-regulated pathways for mitotic chromosome folding. Genes & Development. 18: 76-87. PMID 14701879 DOI: 10.1101/gad.1150404  1
2003 Yu HG, Koshland DE. Meiotic condensin is required for proper chromosome compaction, SC assembly, and resolution of recombination-dependent chromosome linkages. The Journal of Cell Biology. 163: 937-47. PMID 14662740 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200308027  1
2003 Huang D, Koshland D. Chromosome integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The interplay of DNA replication initiation factors, elongation factors, and origins Genes and Development. 17: 1741-1754. PMID 12865298 DOI: 10.1101/gad.1089203  1
2003 Milutinovich M, Koshland DE. Molecular biology. SMC complexes--wrapped up in controversy. Science (New York, N.Y.). 300: 1101-2. PMID 12750506 DOI: 10.1126/science.1084478  1
2002 Lavoie BD, Hogan E, Koshland D. In vivo dissection of the chromosome condensation machinery: reversibility of condensation distinguishes contributions of condensin and cohesin. The Journal of Cell Biology. 156: 805-15. PMID 11864994 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200109056  1
2000 Laloraya S, Guacci V, Koshland D. Chromosomal addresses of the cohesin component Mcd1p Journal of Cell Biology. 151: 1047-1056. PMID 11086006 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.151.5.1047  1
2000 Hartman T, Stead K, Koshland D, Guacci V. Pds5p is an essential chromosomal protein required for both sister chromatid cohesion and condensation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Journal of Cell Biology. 151: 613-626. PMID 11062262 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.151.3.613  1
2000 Koshland DE, Guacci V. Sister chromatid cohesion: The beginning of a long and beautiful relationship Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 12: 297-301. PMID 10801457 DOI: 10.1016/S0955-0674(00)00092-2  1
2000 Lavoie BD, Tuffo KM, Oh S, Koshland D, Holm C. Mitotic chromosome condensation requires Brn1p, the yeast homologue of Barren. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 11: 1293-304. PMID 10749930 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.12.1.305  1
1999 Megee PC, Mistrot C, Guacci V, Koshland D. The centromeric sister chromatid cohesion site directs Mcd1p binding to adjacent sequences Molecular Cell. 4: 445-450. PMID 10518226 DOI: 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80347-0  1
1999 Cohen-Fix O, Koshland D. Pds1p of budding yeast has dual roles: Inhibition of anaphase initiation and regulation of mitotic exit Genes and Development. 13: 1950-1959. PMID 10444593  1
1999 Megee PC, Koshland D. A functional assay for centromere-associated sister chromatid cohesion Science. 285: 254-257. PMID 10398602 DOI: 10.1126/science.285.5425.254  1
1999 Hyland KM, Kingsbury J, Koshland D, Hieter P. Ctf19p: A novel kinetochore protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a potential link between the kinetochore and mitotic spindle. The Journal of Cell Biology. 145: 15-28. PMID 10189365 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.145.1.15  1
1999 Skibbens RV, Corson LB, Koshland D, Hieter P. Ctf7p is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and links mitotic chromosome structure to the DNA replication machinery Genes and Development. 13: 307-319. PMID 9990855  1
1998 Meluh PB, Yang P, Glowczewski L, Koshland D, Smith MM. Cse4p is a component of the core centromere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell. 94: 607-613. PMID 9741625 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81602-5  1
1997 Cohen-Fix O, Koshland D. The metaphase-to-anaphase transition: Avoiding a mid-life crisis Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 9: 800-806. PMID 9425344 DOI: 10.1016/S0955-0674(97)80080-4  1
1997 Meluh PB, Koshland D. Budding yeast centromere composition and assembly as revealed by in vivo cross-linking Genes and Development. 11: 3401-3412. PMID 9407032  1
1997 Cohen-Fix O, Koshland D. The anaphase inhibitor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pds1p is a target of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94: 14361-14366. PMID 9405617 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.94.26.14361  1
1997 Guacci V, Koshland D, Strunnikov A. A direct link between sister chromatid cohesion and chromosome condensation revealed through the analysis of MCD1 in S. cerevisiae Cell. 91: 47-57. PMID 9335334 DOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)80008-8  1
1997 Guacci V, Hogan E, Koshland D. Centromere position in budding yeast: Evidence for anaphase A Molecular Biology of the Cell. 8: 957-972. PMID 9201708  1
1996 Cohen-Fix O, Peters JM, Kirschner MW, Koshland D. Anaphase initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the APC-dependent degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p. Genes & Development. 10: 3081-93. PMID 8985178 DOI: 10.1101/gad.10.24.3081  1
1996 Koshland D, Strunnikov A. Mitotic chromosome condensation. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 12: 305-33. PMID 8970729 DOI: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.12.1.305  1
1996 Basrai MA, Kingsbury J, Koshland D, Spencer F, Hieter P. Faithful chromosome transmission requires Spt4p, a putative regulator of chromatin structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 16: 2838-47. PMID 8649393  1
1996 Yamamoto A, Guacci V, Koshland D. Pds1p, an inhibitor of anaphase in budding yeast, plays a critical role in the APC and checkpoint pathway(s) Journal of Cell Biology. 133: 99-110. PMID 8601617 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.133.1.99  1
1996 Yamamoto A, Guacci V, Koshland D. Pds1p is required for faithful execution of anaphase in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Journal of Cell Biology. 133: 85-97. PMID 8601616 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.133.1.85  1
1995 Strunnikov AV, Kingsbury J, Koshland D. CEP3 encodes a centromere protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Journal of Cell Biology. 128: 749-60. PMID 7876302 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.128.5.749  1
1995 Saunders WS, Koshland D, Eshel D, Gibbons IR, Hoyt MA. Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin- and dynein-related proteins required for anaphase chromosome segregation. The Journal of Cell Biology. 128: 617-24. PMID 7860634 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.128.4.617  1
1995 Strunnikov AV, Hogan E, Koshland D. SMC2, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene essential for chromosome segregation and condensation, defines a subgroup within the SMC family Genes and Development. 9: 587-599. PMID 7698648  1
1995 Yamamoto A, Dewald DB, Boronenkov IV, Anderson RA, Emr SD, Koshland D. Novel PI(4)P 5-kinase homologue, Fab1p, essential for normal vacuole function and morphology in yeast Molecular Biology of the Cell. 6: 525-539. PMID 7663021  1
1995 Meluh PB, Koshland D. Evidence that the MIF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a centromere protein with homology to the mammalian centromere protein CENP-C Molecular Biology of the Cell. 6: 793-807. PMID 7579695  1
1994 Guacci V, Hogan E, Koshland D. Chromosome condesation and sister chromatid pairing in budding yeast Journal of Cell Biology. 125: 517-530. PMID 8175878  1
1994 Koshland D. Mitosis: Back to the basics Cell. 77: 951-954. PMID 8020100 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90432-4  1
1993 Strunnikov AV, Larionov VL, Koshland D. SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family. The Journal of Cell Biology. 123: 1635-48. PMID 8276886  1
1993 Kingsbury J, Koshland D. Centromere function on minichromosomes isolated from budding yeast. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4: 859-70. PMID 8241571  1
1993 Guacci V, Yamamoto A, Strunnikov A, Kingsbury J, Hogan E, Meluh P, Koshland D. Structure and function of chromosomes in mitosis of budding yeast. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia On Quantitative Biology. 58: 677-85. PMID 7956084  1
1992 Koshland D. Unifying forces for chromosomes in mitosis. Current Biology : Cb. 2: 569-71. PMID 15336026  0.24
1992 Hogan E, Koshland D. Addition of extra origins of replication to a minichromosome suppresses its mitotic loss in cdc6 and cdc14 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89: 3098-102. PMID 1557417  1
1992 Palmer RE, Sullivan DS, Huffaker T, Koshland D. Role of astral microtubules and actin in spindle orientation and migration in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Journal of Cell Biology. 119: 583-93. PMID 1400594  1
1991 Shero JH, Koval M, Spencer F, Palmer RE, Hieter P, Koshland D. Analysis of chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Methods in Enzymology. 194: 749-773. PMID 2005822 DOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(91)94057-J  1
1991 Sethi N, Monteagudo MC, Koshland D, Hogan E, Burke DJ. The CDC20 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a beta-transducin homolog, is required for a subset of microtubule-dependent cellular processes. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 11: 5592-602. PMID 1922065  1
1991 Kingsbury J, Koshland D. Centromere-dependent binding of yeast minichromosomes to microtubules in vitro. Cell. 66: 483-95. PMID 1868546  1
1990 Palmer RE, Hogan E, Koshland D. Mitotic transmission of artificial chromosomes in cdc mutants of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 125: 763-74. PMID 2204582  1
1989 Palmer RE, Koval M, Koshland D. The dynamics of chromosome movement in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Journal of Cell Biology. 109: 3355-66. PMID 2689456  1
1988 Koshland DE, Mitchison TJ, Kirschner MW. Polewards chromosome movement driven by microtubule depolymerization in vitro. Nature. 331: 499-504. PMID 3340202 DOI: 10.1038/331499a0  1
1987 Koshland D, Rutledge L, Fitzgerald-Hayes M, Hartwell LH. A genetic analysis of dicentric minichromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell. 48: 801-12. PMID 3545498 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90077-8  1
1987 Koshland D, Hieter P. [22] Visual assay for chromosome ploidy Methods in Enzymology. 155: 351-372. PMID 3431466 DOI: 10.1016/0076-6879(87)55024-8  1
1987 Koshland D, Hartwell LH. The structure of sister minichromosome DNA before anaphase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science (New York, N.Y.). 238: 1713-6. PMID 3317838  1
1985 Koshland D, Kent JC, Hartwell LH. Genetic analysis of the mitotic transmission of minichromosomes. Cell. 40: 393-403. PMID 3881185 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(85)90153-9  1
1982 Koshland D, Botstein D. Evidence for posttranslational translocation of beta-lactamase across the bacterial inner membrane. Cell. 30: 893-902. PMID 6754092 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(82)90294-X  1
1982 Koshland D, Sauer RT, Botstein D. Diverse effects of mutations in the signal sequence on the secretion of beta-lactamase in Salmonella typhimurium. Cell. 30: 903-14. PMID 6183007 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(82)90295-1  1
1980 Koshland D, Botstein D. Secretion of beta-lactamase requires the carboxy end of the protein. Cell. 20: 749-60. PMID 6448092 DOI: 10.1016/0092-8674(80)90321-9  1
1980 Shortle D, Koshland D, Weinstock GM, Botstein D. Segment-directed mutagenesis: Construction in vitro of point mutations limited to a small predetermined region of a circular DNA molecule Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 77: 5375-5379. PMID 6254078 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.77.9.5375  1
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