William Happer, Ph.D. - Publications

Affiliations: 
1980- Physics Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 
Area:
Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
Website:
https://phy.princeton.edu/people/william-happer

214 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2014 Happer W. Why has global warming paused? International Journal of Modern Physics A. 29. DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X14600033  1
2014 Happer W. The CO2 Wars: The Age of Global Warming: A History, by Rupert Darwall, London: Quartet Books Limited, 2013, 448 pp., $45.00 hardbound Academic Questions. 27: 125-130. DOI: 10.1007/s12129-013-9400-5  1
2013 Bhamre T, Marsland R, Kominis IK, McGuyer BH, Happer W. Collision kernels from velocity-selective optical pumping with magnetic depolarization Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 87. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043412  1
2012 McGuyer BH, Marsland R, Olsen BA, Happer W. Cusp kernels for velocity-changing collisions. Physical Review Letters. 108: 183202. PMID 22681073 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.183202  1
2012 Marsland R, McGuyer BH, Olsen BA, Happer W. Spin-velocity correlations of optically pumped atoms Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 86. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.023404  1
2012 Cohen RW, Happer W, Lindzen R. In the climate casino: An exchange New York Review of Books. 59.  1
2011 Kostinski N, Olsen BA, Marsland R, McGuyer BH, Happer W. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines. The Review of Scientific Instruments. 82: 033114. PMID 21456725 DOI: 10.1063/1.3574221  1
2011 McGuyer BH, Xia T, Jau YY, Happer W. Nonlinear pressure shifts of alkali-metal atoms in Xenon Proceedings of the Ieee International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition. DOI: 10.1109/FCS.2011.5977737  1
2011 Olsen BA, Patton B, Jau YY, Happer W. Optical pumping and spectroscopy of Cs vapor at high magnetic field Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 84. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063410  1
2011 McGuyer BH, Xia T, Jau YY, Happer W. Hyperfine frequencies of 87Rb and 133Cs atoms in Xe gas Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 84. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.030501  1
2011 Ishikawa K, Patton B, Olsen BA, Jau YY, Happer W. Transfer of spin angular momentum from Cs vapor to nearby Cs salts through laser-induced spin currents Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 83. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.063410  1
2010 Morgan SW, Happer W. Optically pumped atoms with velocity- and spin-changing collisions at low gas pressures Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 81. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.042703  1
2010 Xia T, Morgan SW, Jau YY, Happer W. Polarization and hyperfine transitions of metastable Xe129 in discharge cells Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 81. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.033419  1
2009 McGuyer BH, Jau YY, Happer W. New method for light-shift elimination 2009 Ieee International Frequency Control Symposium Joint With the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum. 1005-1008. DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2009.5168343  1
2009 Ma J, Kishinevski A, Jau YY, Reuter C, Happer W. Modification of glass cell walls by rubidium vapor Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 79. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.042905  1
2009 McGuyer BH, Jau YY, Happer W. Simple method of light-shift suppression in optical pumping systems Applied Physics Letters. 94. DOI: 10.1063/1.3158961  1
2009 Singer SF, Lewis H, Happer W, Gould L, Cohen R, Austin RH. Petitioning for a revised statement on climate change Nature. 460: 457. DOI: 10.1038/460457b  1
2008 Gong F, Jau YY, Happer W. Nonlinear pressure shifts of alkali-metal atoms in inert gases. Physical Review Letters. 100: 233002. PMID 18643492 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233002  1
2008 Jau YY, Happer W, Gong F, Braun A, Kwakernaak M. End-resonance clock and all-photonic clock Proceedings of Spie - the International Society For Optical Engineering. 6906. DOI: 10.1117/12.773803  1
2008 Jau YY, Happer W. All-photonic clock: Laser-atomic oscillator 2008 Ieee International Frequency Control Symposium, Fcs. 665-668. DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2008.4623083  1
2008 Gong F, Jau YY, Happer W. Nonlinear pressure shifts of87Rb and133Cs in Ar and Kr 2008 Ieee International Frequency Control Symposium, Fcs. 115-117. DOI: 10.1109/FREQ.2008.4622969  1
2007 Jau YY, Happer W. Push-pull laser-atomic oscillator. Physical Review Letters. 99: 223001. PMID 18233280 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.223001  1
2007 Patton B, Ishikawa K, Jau YY, Happer W. Intrinsic impurities in glass alkali-vapor cells. Physical Review Letters. 99: 027601. PMID 17678261 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.027601  1
2007 Ishikawa K, Patton B, Jau YY, Happer W. Spin transfer from an optically pumped alkali vapor to a solid. Physical Review Letters. 98: 183004. PMID 17501572 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.183004  1
2007 Gong F, Jau YY, Happer W. Magnetic resonance reversals in optically pumped alkali-metal vapor Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 75. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.053415  1
2006 Gong F, Jau YY, Jensen K, Happer W. Electrolytic fabrication of atomic clock cells Review of Scientific Instruments. 77. DOI: 10.1063/1.2219730  1
2005 Post AB, Jau YY, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Amplitude- versus frequency-modulated pumping light for coherent population trapping resonances at high buffer-gas pressure Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 72. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.72.033417  1
2005 Jau YY, Happer W. Simultaneous stabilization of frequency and magnetic field with the tilted 0-0 state Applied Physics Letters. 87: 1-3. DOI: 10.1063/1.2131180  1
2004 Jau YY, Miron E, Post AB, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states. Physical Review Letters. 93: 160802. PMID 15524969 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.160802  1
2004 Jau YY, Post AB, Kuzma NN, Braun AM, Romalis MV, Happer W. Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances. Physical Review Letters. 92: 110801. PMID 15089119 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.110801  1
2004 Happer W. Department of Defense contributions to U.S. science & technology Optics and Photonics News. 15: 34-39. DOI: 10.1364/OPN.15.11.000034  1
2004 Jau YY, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Measurement of 129Xe-Cs binary spin-exchange rate coefficient Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 69: 061401-1. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.061401  1
2004 Oreto PJ, Jau YY, Post AB, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Buffer-gas-induced shift and broadening of hyperfine resonances in alkali- metal vapors Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 69: 042716-1. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.042716  1
2003 Yuzbashyan EA, Happer W, Altshuler BL, Shastry SB. Extracting hidden symmetry from the energy spectrum Journal of Physics a: Mathematical and General. 36: 2577-2588. DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/36/10/317  1
2003 Jau YY, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Magnetic decoupling of 129Xe-Rb and 129Xe-Cs binary spin exchange Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 67.  1
2003 Jau YY, Post AB, Kuzma NN, Braun AM, Romalis MV, Happer W. The Physics of Miniature Atomic Clocks: 0-0 versus "End" Resonances Proceedings of the Annual Ieee International Frequency Control Symposium. 33-36.  1
2002 Kuzma NN, Patton B, Raman K, Happer W. Fast nuclear spin relaxation in hyperpolarized solid 129Xe. Physical Review Letters. 88: 147602. PMID 11955177  0.64
2002 Walter DK, Griffith WM, Happer W. Magnetic slowing down of spin relaxation due to binary collisions of alkali-metal atoms with buffer-gas atoms. Physical Review Letters. 88: 093004. PMID 11864002 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.093004  1
2002 Happer W. From atomic clocks and gyroscopes to human lung imaging: The improbable course of DoD-supported research on optically-polarized spins Pacific Rim Conference On Lasers and Electro-Optics, Cleo - Technical Digest. 130.  1
2002 Walter DK, Happer W. Spin-exchange broadening of atomic clock resonances Laser Physics. 12: 1182-1187.  1
2002 Patton B, Kuzma NN, Happer W. Chemical shift of hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved in liquid nitrogen Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. 65: 204041-204044.  1
2002 Kuzma NN, Babich D, Happer W. Anisotropic nuclear spin relaxation in single-crystal xenon Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. 65: 1343011-1343019.  1
2002 Jau YY, Kuzma NN, Happer W. High-field measurement of the 129Xe-Rb spin-exchange rate due to binary collisions Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 66.  1
2002 Kuzma NN, Patton B, Raman K, Happer W. Fast nuclear spin relaxation in hyperpolarized solid 129Xe Physical Review Letters. 88.  1
2001 Walter DK, Griffith WM, Happer W. Energy transport in high-density spin-exchange optical pumping cells. Physical Review Letters. 86: 3264-7. PMID 11327946 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3264  1
2001 Vliegen E, Kadlecek S, Anderson LW, Walker TG, Erickson CJ, Happer W. Faraday rotation density measurements of optically thick alkali metal vapors Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section a: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 460: 444-450. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(00)01061-5  1
2001 Kadlecek S, Walker T, Walter DK, Erickson C, Happer W. Spin-axis relaxation in spin-exchange collisions of alkali-metal atoms Physical Review a. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 63: 527171-527175.  1
2000 Erickson CJ, Levron D, Happer W, Kadlecek S, Chann B, Anderson LW, Walker TG. Spin relaxation resonances due to the spin-axis interaction in dense rubidium and cesium vapor. Physical Review Letters. 85: 4237-40. PMID 11060607 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.4237  1
1999 Sauer KL, Fitzgerald RJ, Happer W. Resonance technique to probe 129Xe surface interactions Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 59. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.R1746  1
1999 Appelt S, Baranga ABA, Young AR, Happer W. Light narrowing of rubidium magnetic-resonance lines in high-pressure optical-pumping cells Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 59: 2078-2084. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.2078  1
1999 Romalis MV, Happer W. Inhomogeneously broadened spin masers Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 60: 1385-1402.  1
1999 Fitzgerald RJ, Gatzke M, Fox DC, Cates GD, Happer W. 129 Xe spin relaxation in frozen xenon Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. 59: 8795-8811.  1
1998 Levron D, Walter DK, Appelt S, Fitzgerald RJ, Kahn D, Korbly SE, Sauer KL, Happer W, Earles TL, Mawst LJ, Botez D, Harvey M, Dimarco L, Connolly JC, Möller HE, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized 129Xe produced by spin exchange with diode-laser pumped Cs Applied Physics Letters. 73: 2666-2668. DOI: 10.1063/1.122547  1
1998 Walter DK, Happer W, Walker TG. Estimates of the relative magnitudes of the isotropic and anisotropic magnetic-dipole hyperfine interactions in alkali-metal-noble-gas systems Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 58: 3642-3653.  1
1998 Fitzgerald RJ, Sauer KL, Happer W. Cross-relaxation in laser-polarized liquid xenon Chemical Physics Letters. 284: 87-92.  1
1998 Ben-Amar Baranga A, Appelt S, Erickson CJ, Young AR, Happer W. Alkali-metal-atom polarization imaging in high-pressure optical-pumping cells Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 58: 2282-2294.  1
1998 Appelt S, Ben-Amar Baranga A, Erickson CJ, Romalis MV, Young AR, Happer W. Theory of spin-exchange optical pumping of3He and129Xe Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 58: 1412-1439.  1
1998 Ben-Amar Baranga A, Appelt S, Romalis MV, Erickson CJ, Young AR, Cates GD, Happer W. Polarization of3He by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb and K vapors Physical Review Letters. 80: 2801-2804.  1
1997 Johnson GA, Cates G, Chen XJ, Cofer GP, Driehuys B, Happer W, Hedlund LW, Saam B, Shattuck MD, Swartz J. Dynamics of magnetization in hyperpolarized gas MRI of the lung. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 38: 66-71. PMID 9211381 DOI: 10.1002/mrm.1910380111  1
1997 Mugler JP, Driehuys B, Brookeman JR, Cates GD, Berr SS, Bryant RG, Daniel TM, de Lange EE, Downs JH, Erickson CJ, Happer W, Hinton DP, Kassel NF, Maier T, Phillips CD, et al. MR imaging and spectroscopy using hyperpolarized 129Xe gas: preliminary human results. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine : Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 37: 809-15. PMID 9178229 DOI: 10.1002/mrm.1910370602  1
1997 Walker TG, Happer W. Spin-exchange optical pumping of noble-gas nuclei Reviews of Modern Physics. 69: 629-642.  1
1997 Sauer KL, Fitzgerald RJ, Happer W. Laser-polarized liquid xenon Chemical Physics Letters. 277: 153-158.  1
1997 Walker TG, Thywissen JH, Happer W. Spin-rotation interaction of alkali-metal-He-atom pairs Physical Review a - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics. 56: 2090-2094.  1
1997 Young AR, Appelt S, Ben-Amar Baranga A, Erickson C, Happer W. Three-dimensional imaging of spin polarization of alkali-metal vapor in optical pumping cells Applied Physics Letters. 70: 3081-3083.  1
1996 MacFall JR, Charles HC, Black RD, Middleton H, Swartz JC, Saam B, Driehuys B, Erickson C, Happer W, Cates GD, Johnson GA, Ravin CE. Human lung air spaces: potential for MR imaging with hyperpolarized He-3. Radiology. 200: 553-8. PMID 8685356 DOI: 10.1148/radiology.200.2.8685356  1
1996 Black RD, Middleton HL, Cates GD, Cofer GP, Driehuys B, Happer W, Hedlund LW, Johnson GA, Shattuck MD, Swartz JC. In vivo He-3 MR images of guinea pig lungs. Radiology. 199: 867-70. PMID 8638019 DOI: 10.1148/radiology.199.3.8638019  1
1996 Saam B, Drukker N, Happer W. Edge enhancement observed with hyperpolarized 3He Chemical Physics Letters. 263: 481-487.  1
1996 Driehuys B, Cates GD, Miron E, Sauer K, Walter DK, Happer W. High-volume production of laser-polarized 129Xe Applied Physics Letters. 69: 1668-1670.  1
1995 Driehuys B, Cates GD, Happer W. Surface relaxation mechanisms of laser-polarized 129Xe. Physical Review Letters. 74: 4943-4946. PMID 10058638 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.74.4943  1
1995 Saam B, Happer W, Middleton H. Nuclear relaxation of 3He in the presence of O2. Physical Review. A. 52: 862-865. PMID 9912313  1
1995 Middleton H, Black RD, Saam B, Cates GD, Cofer GP, Guenther R, Happer W, Hedlund LW, Johnson GA, Juvan K. MR imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 33: 271-5. PMID 7707920 DOI: 10.1002/mrm.1910330219  1
1995 Saam B, Happer W, Middleton H. Nuclear relaxation of He3 in the presence of O2 Physical Review A. 52: 862-865. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.52.862  1
1994 Albert MS, Cates GD, Driehuys B, Happer W, Saam B, Springer CS, Wishnia A. Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized 129Xe. Nature. 370: 199-201. PMID 8028666 DOI: 10.1038/370199a0  1
1994 Happer W, MacDonald GJ, Max CE, Dyson FJ. Atmospheric-turbulence compensation by resonant optical backscattering from the sodium layer in the upper atmosphere Journal of the Optical Society of America a: Optics and Image Science, and Vision. 11: 263-276.  1
1993 Gatzke M, Cates GD, Driehuys B, Fox D, Happer W, Saam B. Extraordinarily slow nuclear spin relaxation in frozen laser-polarized 129Xe. Physical Review Letters. 70: 690-693. PMID 10054178 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.690  1
1993 Newbury NR, Barton AS, Cates GD, Happer W, Middleton H. Gaseous 3He-3He magnetic dipolar spin relaxation. Physical Review. A. 48: 4411-4420. PMID 9910144  1
1993 Newbury NR, Barton AS, Cates GD, Happer W, Middleton H. Gaseous -33He magnetic dipolar spin relaxation Physical Review A. 48: 4411-4420. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.48.4411  1
1993 Driehuys B, Cates GD, Happer W, Mabuchi H, Saam B, Albert MS, Wishnia A. Spin transfer between laser-polarized 129Xe nuclei and surface protons Physics Letters A. 184: 88-92. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(93)90352-Z  1
1991 Stoller SD, Happer W, Dyson FJ. Transverse spin relaxation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Physical Review. A. 44: 7459-7477. PMID 9905887  0.6
1991 Stoller SD, Happer W, Dyson FJ. Transverse spin relaxation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields Physical Review A. 44: 7459-7477. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.44.7459  1
1990 Cates GD, Benton DR, Gatzke M, Happer W, Hasson KC, Newbury NR. Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon. Physical Review Letters. 65: 2591-2594. PMID 10042636 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.65.2591  1
1990 Hasson KC, Cates GD, Lerman K, Bogorad P, Happer W. Erratum: Spin relaxation due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities: Quartic dependence and diffusion-constant measurements Physical Review. A. 42: 5766. PMID 9904732  1
1990 Wu Z, Happer W, Kitano M, Daniels J. Experimental studies of wall interactions of adsorbed spin-polarized 131Xe nuclei. Physical Review. A. 42: 2774-2784. PMID 9904348  0.96
1990 Redsun SG, Knize RJ, Cates GD, Happer W. Production of highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium by spin-exchange optical pumping. Physical Review. A. 42: 1293-1301. PMID 9904154  1
1990 Hasson KC, Cates GD, Lerman K, Bogorad P, Happer W. Spin relaxation due to magnetic-field inhomogeneities: Quartic dependence and diffusion-constant measurements. Physical Review. A. 41: 3672-3688. PMID 9903538 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.41.3672  1
1990 Schaefer SR, Cates GD, Happer W. Determination of spin-exchange parameters between optically pumped rubidium and 83Kr. Physical Review. A. 41: 6063-6070. PMID 9903009  1
1990 Wu Z, Happer W, Kitano M, Daniels J. Experimental studies of wall interactions of adsorbed spin-polarized Xe131 nuclei Physical Review A. 42: 2774-2784. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.2774  1
1990 Redsun SG, Knize RJ, Cates GD, Happer W. Production of highly spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium by spin-exchange optical pumping Physical Review A. 42: 1293-1301. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.1293  1
1990 Schaefer SR, Cates GD, Happer W. Determination of spin-exchange parameters between optically pumped rubidium and Kr83 Physical Review A. 41: 6063-6070. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.41.6063  1
1989 Schaefer SR, Cates GD, Chien TR, Gonatas D, Happer W, Walker TG. Frequency shifts of the magnetic-resonance spectrum of mixtures of nuclear spin-polarized noble gases and vapors of spin-polarized alkali-metal atoms. Physical Review. A. 39: 5613-5623. PMID 9901143 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.39.5613  1
1989 Coulter KP, McDonald AB, Cates GD, Happer W, Chupp TE. Measurement of 3He depolarization rates during bombardment with a 4He beam Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. 276: 29-34. DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(89)90612-8  1
1988 Kitano M, Calaprice FP, Pitt ML, Clayhold J, Happer W, Kadar-Kallen M, Musolf M, Ulm G, Wendt K, Chupp T, Bonn J, Neugart R, Otten E, Duong HT. Nuclear orientation of radon isotopes by spin-exchange optical pumping. Physical Review Letters. 60: 2133-2136. PMID 10038268 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.2133  1
1988 Walker TG, Bonin K, Happer W. Erratum: Electron-noble-gas spin-flip scattering at low energy Physical Review. A. 37: 2241-2242. PMID 9920573 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.37.2241.2  0.96
1988 Bonin KD, Saltzberg DP, Happer W. Relaxation of gaseous spin-polarized 3He targets due to creation of 3He+ Physical Review. A. 38: 4481-4487. PMID 9900912  0.56
1988 Cates GD, White DJ, Chien TR, Schaefer SR, Happer W. Spin relaxation in gases due to inhomogeneous static and oscillating magnetic fields. Physical Review. A. 38: 5092-5106. PMID 9900229 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.38.5092  1
1988 Bonin KD, Walker TG, Happer W. Relaxation of gaseous spin-polarized 3He targets due to ionizing radiation. Physical Review. A. 37: 3270-3282. PMID 9900070  0.96
1988 Cates GD, Schaefer SR, Happer W. Relaxation of spins due to field inhomogeneities in gaseous samples at low magnetic fields and low pressures. Physical Review. A. 37: 2877-2885. PMID 9900016 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.37.2877  1
1988 Wu Z, Schaefer S, Cates GD, Happer W. Coherent interactions of the polarized nuclear spins of gaseous atoms with the container walls. Physical Review. A. 37: 1161-1175. PMID 9899777 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.37.1161  1
1988 Bonin KD, Saltzberg DP, Happer W. Relaxation of gaseous spin-polarized He3 targets due to creation of He+3 Physical Review A. 38: 4481-4487. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.38.4481  1
1988 Bonin KD, Walker TG, Happer W. Relaxation of gaseous spin-polarized He3 targets due to ionizing radiation Physical Review A. 37: 3270-3282. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.37.3270  1
1988 Knize RJ, Wu Z, Happer W. Optical Pumping and Spin Exchange in Gas Cells Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. 24: 223-267. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2199(08)60232-8  1
1988 Coulter KP, McDonald AB, Happer W, Chupp TE, Wagshul ME. Neutron polarization with polarized 3He Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. 270: 90-94. DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(88)90013-7  1
1987 Wu Z, Happer W, Daniels JM. Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed 131Xe gas with surfaces. Physical Review Letters. 59: 1480-1483. PMID 10035245 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.59.1480  1
1987 van Wijngaarden WA, Bonin KD, Happer W. Theory of the inverse hook method for measuring oscillator strengths. Physical Review. A. 36: 1187-1199. PMID 9898975 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.36.1187  1
1987 Walker TG, Bonin K, Happer W. Electron-noble-gas spin-flip scattering at low energy. Physical Review. A. 35: 3749-3752. PMID 9898599  0.96
1987 Chupp TE, Wagshul ME, Coulter KP, McDonald AB, Happer W. Polarized, high-density, gaseous He3 targets Physical Review C. 36: 2244-2251. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.36.2244  1
1987 Walker TG, Bonin K, Happer W. Electronnoble-gas spin-flip scattering at low energy Physical Review A. 35: 3749-3752. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.35.3749  1
1987 McGaugh S, Musolf M, Wu Z, Happer W. An investigation of the efficiencies of various buffer gases in Na-Xe spin exchange Physics Letters A. 120: 124-128. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(87)90711-0  1
1987 Happer W, Bonin KD, Walker TG. The spin-rotation interaction of atoms with half-filled electron shells Physics Letters A. 120: 293-295. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(87)90674-8  1
1987 Happer W, Bonin KD, Walker TG. The stability of spin-polarized nitrogen crystals Chemical Physics Letters. 135: 451-453. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2614(87)85188-6  1
1987 van Wijngaarden WA, Bonin KD, Happer W. Inverse hook method for measuring oscillator strengths for transitions between excited atomic states [1] Hyperfine Interactions. 38: 471-498. DOI: 10.1007/BF02394856  1
1987 Happer W, Van Wijngaarden WA. An optical pumping primer Hyperfine Interactions. 38: 435-470. DOI: 10.1007/BF02394855  1
1987 Walker TG, Bonin KD, Happer W. Modulation technique for measuring diffusion coefficients of Ba in noble gases The Journal of Chemical Physics. 87: 660-663.  1
1986 Wu ZK, Kitano M, Happer W, Hou M, Daniels JM. Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation. Applied Optics. 25: 4483. PMID 18235813  0.48
1986 van Wijngaarden WA, Bonin K, Happer W, Miron E, Schreiber D, Arisawa T. Inverse hook method for measuring oscillator strengths. Physical Review Letters. 56: 2024-2027. PMID 10032838 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.2024  1
1986 Kitano M, Bourzutschky M, Calaprice FP, Clayhold J, Happer W, Musolf M. Measurement of magnetic dipole moments of 129Xem and 131Xem by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb. Physical Review. C, Nuclear Physics. 34: 1974-1979. PMID 9953664  0.44
1986 van Wijngaarden WA, Bonin KD, Happer W. Observation of quantum beats in the 6D3/2-->5P1/2 transition in 85Rb. Physical Review. A. 33: 77-81. PMID 9896585  0.56
1986 Kitano M, Bourutschky M, Calaprice FP, Clayhold J, Happer W, Musolf M. Measurement of magnetic dipole moments of Xem129 and Xem131 by spin exchange with optically pumped Rb Physical Review C. 34: 1974-1979. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.34.1974  1
1986 Van Wijngaarden WA, Bonin KD, Happer W. Observation of quantum beats in the 6D3/2→5P1/2 transition in Rb85 Physical Review A. 33: 77-81. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.33.77  1
1985 Bonin K, Dicke RH, Happer W. Comment on "Pressure narrowing of ac Stark-broadened multiphoton spectra" Physical Review Letters. 54: 366. PMID 10031494 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.366  1
1985 Calaprice FP, Happer W, Schreiber DF, Lowry MM, Miron E, Zeng X. Nuclear alignment and magnetic moments of 133Xe, 133Xem, and 131Xem by spin exchange with optically pumped 87Rb. Physical Review Letters. 54: 174-177. PMID 10031432 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.174  1
1985 Wu Z, Walker TG, Happer W. Spin-rotation interaction of noble-gas alkali-metal atom pairs. Physical Review Letters. 54: 1921-1924. PMID 10031176 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.54.1921  1
1985 Zeng X, Wu Z, Call T, Miron E, Schreiber D, Happer W. Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb, and Cs atoms and 129Xe nuclei in alkali-metal-noble-gas van der Waals molecules. Physical Review. A. 31: 260-278. PMID 9895475  0.96
1985 Happer W. Comment on binary formation of NaNe quasibound molecules observed in spin relaxation of Na Physical Review A. 31: 4020-4021. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.31.4020  1
1985 Zeng X, Wu Z, Call T, Miron E, Schreiber D, Happer W. Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb, and Cs atoms and Xe129 nuclei in alkali-metal noble-gas van der Waals molecules Physical Review A. 31: 260-278. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.31.260  1
1985 Mackintosh FC, Wu Z, Happer W. A measurement of the spin-rotation coupling in NaXe molecules Physics Letters A. 112: 435-439. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(85)90709-1  1
1985 Hsu J, Wu Z, Happer W. Cs induced 129Xe nuclear spin relaxation in N2 and He buffer gases Physics Letters A. 112: 141-145. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(85)90675-9  1
1985 Happer W. POLARIZATION OF STABLE AND RADIOACTIVE NOBLE GAS NUCLEI BY SPIN EXCHANGE WITH LASER PUMPED ALKALI ATOMS Journal De Physique (Paris), Colloque. 46: 261-267.  1
1984 Sharma A, Happer W, Lu YQ. Sub-Doppler-broadened magnetic field resonances in the resonant stimulated electronic Raman scattering of multimode laser light Physical Review A. 29: 749-757. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.29.749  1
1984 Happer W, Miron E, Schaefer S, Schreiber D, Van Wijngaarden WA, Zeng X. Polarization of the nuclear spins of noble-gas atoms by spin exchange with optically pumped alkali-metal atoms Physical Review A. 29: 3092-3110. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.29.3092  1
1984 Happer W. Alfred kastler Physics Today. 37: 101-102. DOI: 10.1063/1.2916219  1
1984 Huennekens J, Schaefer S, Ligare M, Happer W. Observation of the lowest triplet transitions 3Σ g+-3Σu+ in Na 2 and K2 The Journal of Chemical Physics. 80: 4794-4799.  1
1984 Happer W, Miron E, Knize R, Cecchi J. SPIN EXCHANGE OPTICAL PUMPING TO PRODUCE LARGE AMOUNTS OF POLARIZED NUCLEI Aip Conference Proceedings. 114-122.  1
1983 Bhaskar ND, Happer W, Larsson M, Zeng X. Slowing down of rubidium-induced nuclear spin relaxation of Xe129 gas in a magnetic field Physical Review Letters. 50: 105-108. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.50.105  1
1983 Zeng X, Miron E, Van Wijngaarden WA, Schreiber D, Happer W. Wall relaxation of spin polarized 129Xe nuclei Physics Letters A. 96: 191-194. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(83)90702-8  1
1983 Brown FR, Happer W. A method for measuring the reaction rate of alkali metal with hydrogen gas Physics Letters A. 94: 81-84. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(83)90212-8  1
1983 Ligare M, Schaefer S, Huennekens J, Happer W. Infrared spectroscopy of a dense potassium vapor jet Optics Communications. 48: 39-43. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4018(83)90245-6  1
1982 Bhaskar ND, Happer W, McClelland T. Efficiency of spin exchange between rubidium spins and Xe129 nuclei in a gas Physical Review Letters. 49: 25-28. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.49.25  1
1982 Wu Z, Ligare M, Happer W. Laser induced infrared fluorescence of Cs2 and Rb2 Physics Letters A. 89: 7-10. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(82)90132-3  1
1982 Ligare M, Wu Z, Bhaskar ND, Happer W. Laser-induced fluorescence of CsH (A 1Σ+→X 1Σ+) to levels near the dissociation limit of X 1Σ+ The Journal of Chemical Physics. 76: 3480-3482.  1
1981 Islam MA, Kponou A, Suleman B, Happer W. Magnetic circular dichroism of excimer molecules Physical Review Letters. 47: 643-646. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.47.643  1
1981 Bhaskar ND, Camparo J, Ligare M, Happer W. Photoproduction of spin-polarized hydrogen atoms and electrons in mixtures of cesium vapor and hydrogen gas Physical Review Letters. 46: 1387-1390. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.46.1387  1
1981 Bhaskar ND, Camparo J, Happer W, Sharma A. Light narrowing of magnetic resonance lines in dense, optically pumped alkali-metal vapor Physical Review A. 23: 3048-3064. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.23.3048  1
1981 Sharma A, Bhaskar ND, Lu YQ, Happer W. Continuous-wave mirrorless lasing in optically pumped atomic Cs and Rb vapors Applied Physics Letters. 39: 209-211. DOI: 10.1063/1.92681  1
1980 Bhaskar ND, Pietras J, Camparo J, Happer W, Liran J. Spin destruction in collisions between cesium atoms Physical Review Letters. 44: 930-933. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.44.930  1
1980 Bhaskar ND, Hou M, Ligare M, Suleman B, Happer W. Role of Na-Xe molecules in spin relaxation of optically pumped Na in Xe gas Physical Review A. 22: 2710-2716. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.22.2710  1
1980 Lam LK, Gupta R, Happer W. Hyperfine-structure measurements in the first excited D levels of potassium, rubidium, and cesium by cascade-fluorescence spectroscopy Physical Review A. 21: 1225-1234. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.21.1225  1
1980 Vasilakis A, Bhaskar ND, Happer W. New infrared absorption bands of sodium vapor The Journal of Chemical Physics. 73: 1490-1493.  1
1980 Zouboulis E, Bhaskar ND, Vasilakis A, Happer W. New infrared absorption bands of cesium vapor The Journal of Chemical Physics. 72: 2356-2363.  1
1979 Bhaskar ND, Hou M, Suleman B, Happer W. Propagating, optical-pumping wave fronts Physical Review Letters. 43: 519-521. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.519  1
1979 Bhaskar ND, Zouboulis E, McClelland T, Happer W. New infrared absorption bands of alkali vapors Physical Review Letters. 42: 640-644. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.42.640  1
1979 Novak R, Bhaskar ND, Happer W. Infrared emission bands from transitions between excited states of cesium–noble gas molecules Journal of Chemical Physics. 71: 4052-4056. DOI: 10.1063/1.438174  1
1979 Liran J, Pietras J, Camparo J, Happer W. Optical pumping of cesium atoms with second resonance light Optics Communications. 31: 169-173. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4018(79)90296-7  1
1979 Bhaskar ND, Zouboulis E, Novak R, Happer W. Laser-excited cross fluorescent emission from cesium molecules Chemical Physics Letters. 63: 555-557. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2614(79)80712-5  1
1978 Yabuzaki T, Tam AC, Curry SM, Happer W. Visible emission bands of KXen polyatomic exciplexes Physical Review Letters. 41: 543-546. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.41.543  1
1978 Curry SM, Happer W, Tam AC, Yabuzaki T. Spin polarization in flames by optical pumping Physical Review Letters. 40: 67-70. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.40.67  1
1978 Tam AC, Yabuzaki T, Curry SM, Happer W. Visible excimer bands of the K-noble-gas and Na-noble-gas molecules: Comparison of experiment with theory Physical Review A. 18: 196-200. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.18.196  1
1978 Tam AC, Yabuzaki T, Curry SM, Hou M, Happer W. Inelastic cross sections in Cs(n DJ2)+Cs(6 S122) collisions Physical Review A. 17: 1862-1868. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.17.1862  1
1978 Nagourney W, Happer W, Lurio A. Level-crossing study of the hyperfine structure of lithium Physical Review A. 17: 1394-1407. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.17.1394  1
1978 Yabuzaki T, Tam AC, Hou M, Happer W, Curry SM. Preferential excitation transfer in Cs*(6D 3 2)- Cs(6S 1 2) collisions Optics Communications. 24: 305-310. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4018(78)90017-2  1
1978 Gupta R, Happer W, Wagner J, Wennmyr E. Absorption studies of Cs2 and Rb2 molecular bands in the visible and near visible The Journal of Chemical Physics. 68: 799-803.  1
1977 Tam AC, Happer W. Long-range interactions between cw self-focused laser beams in an atomic vapor Physical Review Letters. 38: 278-282. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.278  1
1977 Happer W, Tam AC. Effect of rapid spin exchange on the magnetic-resonance spectrum of alkali vapors Physical Review A. 16: 1877-1891. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.16.1877  1
1977 Moe G, Happer W. Conservation of angular momentum for light propagating in a transparent anisotropic medium Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. 10: 1191-1208. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3700/10/7/009  1
1977 Tam AC, Happer W. Optically pumped cell for novel visible decay of inhomogeneous magnetic field or of rf frequency spectrum Applied Physics Letters. 30: 580-582. DOI: 10.1063/1.89243  1
1977 Tam AC, Happer W. Plasma production in a Cs vapor by a weak CW laser beam at 6010 Å Optics Communications. 21: 403-407. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4018(77)90049-9  1
1977 Tam AC, Happer W, Siano D. Oscillating laser-production of particulates in a Cs/D2 vapor Chemical Physics Letters. 49: 320-323. DOI: 10.1016/0009-2614(77)80595-2  1
1976 Moe G, Tam AC, Happer W. Absorption studies of excimer transitions in Cs-noble-gas and Rb-noble-gas molecules Physical Review A. 14: 349-358. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.14.349  1
1976 Tam AC, Moe G, Bulos BR, Happer W. Excimer radiation from Na-Noble-gas and K-Noble-gas molecules Optics Communications. 16: 376-379. DOI: 10.1016/0030-4018(76)90021-3  1
1976 Happer W. J5 Laser snow: Particle formation by resonant light Optics Communications. 18: 93.  1
1976 Tam AC, Happer W. Spectroscopy of the CsH (X1Σ+) state by laser-excited fluorescence The Journal of Chemical Physics. 64: 2456-2459.  1
1976 Tam AC, Happer W. Polarization of laser-excited fluorescent lines from 85Rb 2 and 87Rb2 molecules The Journal of Chemical Physics. 64: 4337-4339.  1
1976 Novak R, Bhaskar ND, Happer W. Infrared emission bands from transitions between excited states of cesium-noble gas molecules The Journal of Chemical Physics. 71: 4052-4056.  1
1976 Bulos BR, Gupta R, Happer W. LIFETIME MEASUREMENTS IN THE EXCITED S STATES OF K, Rb, AND Cs BY THE CASCADE HANLE EFFECT J Opt Soc Am. 66: 426-433.  1
1975 Tam A, Moe G, Park W, Happer W. Strong New Emission Bands in Alkali-Noble-Gas Systems Physical Review Letters. 35: 85-87. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.85  1
1975 Tam A, Moe G, Happer W. Particle Formation by Resonant Laser Light in Alkali-Metal Vapor Physical Review Letters. 35: 1630-1633. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.35.1630  1
1975 Tai C, Happer W, Gupta R. Hyperfine structure and lifetime measurements of the second-excited D states of rubidium and cesium by cascade fluorescence spectroscopy Physical Review A. 12: 736-747. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.12.736  1
1975 Happer W, Moe G, Tam AC. New absorption bands observed in the CsXe system Physics Letters A. 54: 405-406. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(75)90789-6  1
1974 Gupta R, Happer W, Moe G, Park W. Nuclear magnetic resonance of diatomic alkali molecules in optically pumped alkali vapors Physical Review Letters. 32: 574-577. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.574  1
1974 Liao KH, Lam LK, Gupta R, Happer W. Cascade anticrossing measurement of the anomalous hyperfine structure of the 4D2 state of rubidium Physical Review Letters. 32: 1340-1343. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.32.1340  1
1974 Happer W, Svanberg S. Power-series analysis of light shifts in optical pumping experiments Physical Review A. 9: 508-519. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.9.508  1
1974 Tsekeris P, Gupta R, Happer W, Belin G, Svanberg S. Determination of hyperfine structure of highly excited S states in alkali atoms using a CW dye laser Physics Letters A. 48: 101-102. DOI: 10.1016/0375-9601(74)90418-6  1
1973 Happer W, Tang H. Spin-exchange shift and narrowing of magnetic resonance lines in optically pumped alkali vapors Physical Review Letters. 31: 273-276. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.31.273  1
1973 Svanberg S, Tsekeris P, Happer W. Hyperfine-structure studies of highly excited D and F levels in alkali atoms using a cw tunable dye laser Physical Review Letters. 30: 817-820. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.30.817  1
1973 Liao KH, Gupta R, Happer W. Measurement of hyperfine structure of the 4S122 State of Na23 by cascade radio-frequency spectroscopy Physical Review A. 8: 2811-2813. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.8.2811  1
1973 Gupta R, Happer W, Lam LK, Svanberg S. Hyperfine-structure measurements of excited S states of the stable isotopes of potassium, rubidium, and cesium by cascade radio-frequency spectroscopy Physical Review A. 8: 2792-2810. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.8.2792  1
1973 Tai C, Gupta R, Happer W. Hyperfine structure of the 8P122 state of Cs133 Physical Review A. 8: 1661-1665. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.8.1661  1
1972 Happer W. Optical pumping Reviews of Modern Physics. 44: 169-249. DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.44.169  1
1972 Gupta R, Chang S, Tai C, Happer W. Cascade radio-frequency spectroscopy of excited S and D states of rubidium; Anomalous D-state hyperfine structure Physical Review Letters. 29: 695-698. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.29.695  1
1972 Gupta R, Chang S, Happer W. Cascade-decoupling measurements of excited S-state hyperfine structures of potassium, rubidium, and cesium Physical Review A. 6: 529-544. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.6.529  1
1971 Chang S, Gupta R, Happer W. Hyperfine structures of optically inaccessible excited atomic states Physical Review Letters. 27: 1036-1039. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1036  1
1971 Bulos BR, Happer W. Nuclear-spin inertia and pressure broadening of P122 Hanle-effect signals Physical Review A. 4: 849-853. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.4.849  1
1971 Bulos BR, Marshall A, Happer W. Light shifts due to real transitions in optically pumped alkali atoms Physical Review A. 4: 51-59. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.4.51  1
1971 Schmieder RW, Lurio A, Happer W. Quadratic Stark effect in the P322 states of the alkali atoms Physical Review A. 3: 1209-1217. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.3.1209  1
1970 Tang H, Happer W. Parametric frequency conversion of resonance radiation in optically pumped rubidium-87 vapor Physical Review Letters. 24: 551-554. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.24.551  1
1970 Happer W. Multipole relaxation times of a weakly perturbed spin system Physical Review B. 1: 2203-2207. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.1.2203  1
1970 Mathur BS, Tang HY, Happer W. Light propagation in optically pumped alkali vapors Physical Review A. 2: 648-660. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.2.648  1
1970 Schmieder RW, Lurio A, Happer W, Khadjavi A. Level-crossing measurement of lifetime and hfs constants of the P322 states of the stable alkali atoms Physical Review A. 2: 1216-1228. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.2.1216  1
1970 Happer W. Light propagation and light shifts in optical pumping experiments Progress in Quantum Electronics. 1: 51-103. DOI: 10.1016/0079-6727(70)90002-9  1
1968 Mathur BS, Tang H, Bulos R, Happer W. Microwave light modulation by an optically pumped Rb87 vapor Physical Review Letters. 21: 1035-1038. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.21.1035  1
1968 Schmieder RW, Lurio A, Happer W. Hyperfine structure and lifetimes of the 4P322 and 5P322 states of K39 Physical Review. 173: 76-79. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.173.76  1
1968 Mathur BS, Tang H, Happer W. Light shifts in the alkali atoms Physical Review. 171: 11-19. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.171.11  1
1968 Khadjavi A, Lurio A, Happer W. Stark effect in the excited states of Rb, Cs, Cd, and Hg Physical Review. 167: 128-135. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.167.128  1
1968 Happer W. A partial-wave expansion of the finite rotation operator Annals of Physics. 48: 579-591.  1
1967 Happer W, Mathur BS. Coherent detection of a new type of optical double-quantum transition Physical Review Letters. 18: 727-729. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.18.727  1
1967 Happer W, Mathur BS. Off-resonant light as a probe of optically pumped alkali vapors Physical Review Letters. 18: 577-580. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.18.577  1
1967 Happer W, Mathur BS. Effective operator formalism in optical pumping Physical Review. 163: 12-25. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.163.12  1
1967 Happer W, Saloman EB. Resonant collision broadening of the (6s26p7s)P13. State in lead Physical Review. 160: 23-34. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.160.23  1
1966 Khadjavi A, Happer W, Lurio A. Electric-field level-crossing spectroscopy Physical Review Letters. 17: 463-465. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.17.463  1
1966 Saloman EB, Happer W. Lifetime, coherence narrowing, and hyperfine structure of the (6s26p7s) P13 state in lead Physical Review. 144: 7-22. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.144.7  1
1966 Cornwell RG, Happer W, McCullen JD. Nuclear moments of Sc43 and Sc47 Physical Review. 141: 1106-1111. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.141.1106  1
1965 Happer W, Saloman EB. Observation of different lifetimes for atomic states excited with linearly and circularly polarized light Physical Review Letters. 15: 441-443. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.15.441  1
1965 Phillips EA, Happer W, McCullen JD. Spin, hyperfine structure, and new magnetic moment of 21-min Mn52m Physical Review. 140: B555-B558. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.140.B555  1
1964 Happer W. Observations of transitions between stationary states in a rotating magnetic field Physical Review. 136. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.136.A35  1
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