William Smotherman - Publications

Affiliations: 
Psychology State University of New York at Binghamton, Vestal, NY, United States 
Area:
Developmental Psychobiology, Learning

148 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2004 Bacher LF, Smotherman WP. Systematic temporal variation in the rate of spontaneous eye blinking in human infants. Developmental Psychobiology. 44: 140-5. PMID 14994265 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10159  0.96
2004 Bacher LF, Smotherman WP. Spontaneous eye blinking in human infants: a review. Developmental Psychobiology. 44: 95-102. PMID 14994260 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10162  0.96
2003 Smotherman WP. Classical conditioning in the rat fetus. III. Retention, extinction, and re-activation of the conditioned response (CR). Developmental Psychobiology. 42: 181-93. PMID 12555282 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10094  0.96
2002 Smotherman WP. Early experience with the artificial nipple. Developmental Psychobiology. 41: 1-14. PMID 12115286 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10054  0.96
2002 Smotherman WP. Classical conditioning in the rat fetus: temporal characteristics and behavioral correlates of the conditioned response. Developmental Psychobiology. 40: 116-30. PMID 11857326 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10017  0.96
2002 Smotherman WP. Classical conditioning in the rat fetus: involvement of mu and kappa opioid systems in the conditioned response. Developmental Psychobiology. 40: 104-15. PMID 11857325 DOI: 10.1002/dev.10016  0.96
2001 Bacher LF, Smotherman WP, Robertson SS. Effects of warmth on newborn rats' motor activity and oral responsiveness to an artificial nipple. Behavioral Neuroscience. 115: 675-82. PMID 11439456 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.115.3.675  0.96
2000 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. The first suckling episode in the rat: the role of endogenous activity at mu and kappa opioid receptors. Developmental Psychobiology. 37: 129-43. PMID 11044861 DOI: 10.1002/1098-2302(200011)37:3<129::AID-DEV2>3.0.CO;2-P  0.96
2000 Petrov ES, Nizhnikov ME, Smotherman WP. Milk delivery schedules and stomach preloading alter patterns of suckling behavior by newborn rats on a surrogate nipple. Behavioral Neuroscience. 114: 783-96. PMID 10959537 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.114.4.783  0.96
2000 Tudella E, Oishi J, Puglia Bergamasco NH. The effect of oral-gustatory, tactile-bucal, and tactile-manual stimulation on the behavior of the hands in newborns. Developmental Psychobiology. 37: 82-9. PMID 10954833 DOI: 10.1002/1098-2302(200009)37:2<82::AID-DEV3>3.0.CO;2-B  0.96
2000 Bacher LF, Romm R, Spanier H, Tellefsen L, Yip S, Smotherman WP. Developmental psychobiology: a look back on 30 years. Developmental Psychobiology. 37: 1-4. PMID 10937655 DOI: 10.1002/1098-2302(200007)37:1<1::AID-DEV1>3.0.CO;2-N  0.96
2000 Bacher LF, Robertson SS, Smotherman WP. An intrinsic source of behavioral regulation that influences discrete responses to cues important for the initiation of suckling. Behavioral Neuroscience. 114: 594-601. PMID 10883809 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.114.3.594  0.96
1999 Smotherman WP. Editorial note: linda spear appointed to state university of new york distinguished professorship Developmental Psychobiology. 35: 1-2. PMID 10397890 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199907)35:1<1::AID-DEV1>3.0.CO;2-O  0.96
1999 Eilam D, Goffman D, Smotherman WP. How the neonatal rat gets to the nipple. II. Changes during development. Developmental Psychobiology. 34: 217-26. PMID 10204097 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199904)34:3<217::AID-DEV6>3.0.CO;2-L  0.96
1999 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Bregman K, Smotherman WP. Sustained attachment to the nipple in the newborn rat depends on experience with the nipple, milk, and the expression of oral grasping. Behavioral Neuroscience. 113: 211-21. PMID 10197921 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.113.1.211  0.96
1999 Unno N, Wong CH, Jenkins SL, Wentworth RA, Ding XY, Li C, Robertson SS, Smotherman WP, Nathanielsz PW. Blood pressure and heart rate in the ovine fetus: ontogenic changes and effects of fetal adrenalectomy. The American Journal of Physiology. 276: H248-56. PMID 9887039  0.96
1999 Smotherman WP. Developmental psychobiology: Editorial Developmental Psychobiology. 34: iii. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199901)34:13.0.CO;2-L  0.96
1998 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Becker LA, Smotherman WP. Endogenous mu opioid systems and suckling in the neonatal rat. Physiology & Behavior. 65: 591-9. PMID 9877428 DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9384(98)00228-5  0.96
1998 Koffman DJ, Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. Thermal, olfactory, and tactile stimuli increase oral grasping of an artificial nipple by the newborn rat. Developmental Psychobiology. 33: 317-26. PMID 9846235 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199812)33:4<317::AID-DEV3>3.0.CO;2-T  0.96
1998 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. Endogenous opioids and the first suckling episode in the rat. Developmental Psychobiology. 33: 175-83. PMID 9742412 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199809)33:2<175::AID-DEV8>3.0.CO;2-G  0.96
1998 MacLennan BD, Smotherman WP, Robertson SS. Variation in motor activity on different time scales and responsiveness to oral stimulation in the rat fetus. Developmental Psychobiology. 33: 125-31. PMID 9742407 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199809)33:2<125::AID-DEV3>3.0.CO;2-L  0.96
1998 Krasnegor NA, Fifer W, Maulik D, McNellis D, Romero R, Smotherman W. Fetal Behavioral Development: Measurement of Habituation, State Transitions, and Movement to Assess Fetal Well Being and to Predict Outcome Journal of Maternal-Fetal Investigation : the Official Journal of French Society of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology ... [Et Al.]. 8: 51-7. PMID 9685556  0.96
1998 Anderson CM, Mandell AJ, Selz KA, Terry LM, Wong CH, Robinson SR, Robertson SS, Smotherman WP. The development of nuchal atonia associated with active (REM) sleep in fetal sheep: presence of recurrent fractal organization. Brain Research. 787: 351-7. PMID 9518691 DOI: 10.1016/S0006-8993(98)00008-0  0.96
1998 Eilam D, Smotherman WP. How the neonatal rat gets to the nipple: common motor modules and their involvement in the expression of early motor behavior. Developmental Psychobiology. 32: 57-66. PMID 9452909 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199801)32:1<57::AID-DEV7>3.0.CO;2-S  0.96
1998 Krasnegor NA, Fifer W, Maulik D, McNellis D, Romero R, Smotherman W. Fetal behavioral development: A transdisciplinary perspective for assessing fetal well-being and predicting outcome Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine. 3: 185-190.  0.96
1997 Smotherman WP, Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI. Experimental study of the first suckling episode: rat pups ingest fluids through a surrogate nipple. Behavioral Neuroscience. 111: 1383-94. PMID 9438807 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.111.6.1383  0.96
1997 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Stimulus contingencies that permit classical conditioning of opioid activity in the rat fetus. Behavioral Neuroscience. 111: 1086-97. PMID 9383526 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.111.5.1086  0.96
1997 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. The newborn rat ingests fluids through a surrogate nipple: a new technique for the study of early suckling behavior. Physiology & Behavior. 62: 1155-8. PMID 9333212 DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00310-7  0.96
1997 Reilly JL, Robertson SS, MacLennan BD, Smotherman WP. Variability in general activity and the expression of complex behavior in the fetal rat (Rattus norvegicus). Behavioral Neuroscience. 111: 785-91. PMID 9267655 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.111.4.785  0.96
1997 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. Endogenous mu opioid systems and perioral responsiveness in the rat fetus. Physiology & Behavior. 62: 31-7. PMID 9226339 DOI: 10.1016/S0031-9384(97)00106-6  0.96
1997 Smotherman WP, Goffman D, Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI. Oral grasping of a surrogate nipple by the newborn rat. Developmental Psychobiology. 31: 3-17. PMID 9222113 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199707)31:1<3::AID-DEV2>3.0.CO;2-Q  0.96
1997 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Simonik DK, Smotherman WP. Classical conditioning in the fetal rat with a long delay between presentation of CS and US. Developmental Psychobiology. 30: 49-59. PMID 8989532 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199701)30:1<49::AID-DEV5>3.0.CO;2-V  0.96
1996 Robertson SS, Johnson SL, Bacher LF, Wood JR, Wong CH, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP, Nathanielsz PW. Contractile activity of the uterus prior to labor alters the temporal organization of spontaneous motor activity in the fetal sheep. Developmental Psychobiology. 29: 667-83. PMID 8958480 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199612)29:8<667::AID-DEV3>3.0.CO;2-R  0.96
1996 Becker LA, Smotherman WP. Manipulation of the dopamine system affects fetal and neonatal responses to an artificial nipple. Developmental Psychobiology. 29: 139-56. PMID 8919092 DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2302(199603)29:2<139::AID-DEV4>3.0.CO;2-T  0.96
1996 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Smotherman WP. Endogenous AVP systems regulate oral behavior in the rat fetus: neuropeptide systems as ontogenetic adaptations. Behavioral Neuroscience. 110: 1148-57. PMID 8919017 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.110.5.1148  0.96
1996 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Smotherman WP. Interactions between vasopressin and mu-opioid systems in the rat fetus. Physiology & Behavior. 60: 217-30. PMID 8804667 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(96)00018-2  0.96
1996 Smotherman WP, Selz KA, Mandell AJ. Dynamical entropy is conserved during cocaine-induced changes in fetal rat motor patterns. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 21: 173-87. PMID 8774061 DOI: 10.1016/0306-4530(95)00040-2  0.96
1996 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Smotherman WP. Classical conditioning in the fetal rat: reinforcing properties of dynorphin A (1-13). Behavioral Neuroscience. 110: 154-67. PMID 8652064 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.110.1.154  0.96
1996 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. The development of behavior before birth Developmental Psychology. 32: 425-434.  0.96
1995 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Dopamine D1 and D2 effects on fetal mouthing responses to milk. Physiology & Behavior. 57: 15-9. PMID 7878109 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(94)00198-E  0.96
1995 Robinson SR, Wong CH, Robertson SS, Nathanielsz PW, Smotherman WP. Behavioral responses of the chronically instrumented sheep fetus to chemosensory stimuli presented in utero. Behavioral Neuroscience. 109: 551-62. PMID 7662165  0.96
1995 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Asymmetrical development of the dopamine system in the fetal rat as indicated by lateralized administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 50: 359-67. PMID 7617674 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(94)00273-L  0.96
1995 Robinson SR, Hoeltzel TC, Smotherman WP. Development of responses to an artificial nipple in the rat fetus: involvement of mu and kappa opioid systems. Physiology & Behavior. 57: 953-7. PMID 7610149 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(94)00358-C  0.96
1994 Petrov ES, Varlinskaya EI, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP, de Costa BR, Rice KC. Kappa opioid effects on fetal behavior: central administration of U50,488. Physiology & Behavior. 56: 175-82. PMID 8084898 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(94)90276-3  0.96
1994 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Behavioral effects of centrally administered arginine vasopressin in the rat fetus. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108: 395-409. PMID 8037883 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.108.2.395  0.96
1994 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Caveats in the study of perinatal behavioral development: utility of fetal study. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 18: 347-54. PMID 7984353 DOI: 10.1016/0149-7634(94)90048-5  0.96
1994 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Milk as the proximal mechanism for behavioral change in the newborn. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). Supplement. 397: 64-70. PMID 7981476  0.96
1994 Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Intracisternal administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390: behavioral effects in the rat fetus. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 48: 741-8. PMID 7938130 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(94)90341-7  0.96
1994 Browne JB, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Fetal experience with milk or an artificial nipple alters appetitive and aversive responses to perioral cutaneous stimuli. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108: 606-13. PMID 7917053 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.108.3.606  0.96
1994 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR, Varlinskaya EI, Petrov ES, Orlowski M, de Costa BR, Rice KC. Central administration of the endopeptidase 24.15 inhibitor cFP-AAF-pAB suggests dynorphin as the endogenous ligand underlying behavioral effects of milk in the fetal rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 47: 715-9. PMID 7911578 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(94)90178-3  0.96
1994 Simonik DK, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Central administration of cocaine produces age-dependent effects on behavior in the fetal rat. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108: 1179-87. PMID 7893410 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.108.6.1179  0.96
1994 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Behavioral effects of milk in the rat fetus. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108: 1139-49. PMID 7893406 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.108.6.1139  0.96
1994 Simonik DK, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Cocaine alters cyclic motor activity in the fetal rat. Developmental Psychobiology. 27: 489-501. PMID 7883106 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420270803  0.96
1994 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Classical conditioning of opioid activity in the fetal rat. Behavioral Neuroscience. 108: 951-61. PMID 7826517 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.108.5.951  0.96
1993 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Habituation to chemosensory stimuli in the rat fetus: effects of endogenous kappa opioid activity. Behavioral Neuroscience. 107: 611-7. PMID 8397865 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.107.4.611  0.96
1993 Smotherman WP, Simonik DK, Andersen SL, Robinson SR. Mu and kappa opioid systems modulate responses to cutaneous perioral stimulation in the fetal rat. Physiology & Behavior. 53: 751-6. PMID 8390058 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(93)90184-H  0.96
1993 Andersen SL, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Ontogeny of the stretch response in the rat fetus: kappa opioid involvement. Behavioral Neuroscience. 107: 370-6. PMID 8387314 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.107.2.370  0.96
1993 Robinson SR, Moody CA, Spear LP, Smotherman WP. Effects of dopamine and kappa opioid receptors on fetal responsiveness to perioral stimuli. Developmental Psychobiology. 26: 37-50. PMID 8382637 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420260104  0.96
1993 Smotherman WP, Moody CA, Spear LP, Robinson SR. Fetal behavior and the endogenous opioid system: D1 dopamine receptor interactions with the kappa opioid system. Physiology & Behavior. 53: 191-7. PMID 8381974 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(93)90030-J  0.96
1993 Simonik DK, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Cocaine alters behavior in the rat fetus. Behavioral Neuroscience. 107: 867-75. PMID 8280396 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.107.5.867  0.96
1993 Robinson SR, Arnold HM, Spear NE, Smotherman WP. Experience with milk and an artificial nipple promotes conditioned opioid activity in the rat fetus. Developmental Psychobiology. 26: 375-87. PMID 8270121 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420260702  0.96
1993 Andersen SL, Umphress SM, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP, Ward KM, Kehoe P. Modulation of dopamine binding in the fetal rat: effects of milk and exogenous opioid manipulation. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 46: 377-81. PMID 8265693 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(93)90367-3  0.96
1993 Arnold HM, Robinson SR, Spear NE, Smotherman WP. Conditioned opioid activity in the rat fetus. Behavioral Neuroscience. 107: 963-9. PMID 8136071 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.107.6.963  0.96
1993 Smotherman WP, Arnold HM, Robinson SR. Responses to ecologically relevant stimuli in the rat fetus: interactive effects of milk and an artificial nipple. Developmental Psychobiology. 26: 359-74. PMID 8119485 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420260606  0.96
1993 Moody CA, Robinson SR, Spear LP, Smotherman WP. Fetal behavior and the dopamine system: activity effects of D1 and D2 receptor manipulations. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 44: 843-50. PMID 8097042 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(93)90015-L  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Organization of the stretch response to milk in the rat fetus. Developmental Psychobiology. 25: 33-49. PMID 1740228 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420250104  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Habituation in the rat fetus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. B, Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 44: 215-30. PMID 1598420 DOI: 10.1080/02724999208250613  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Fetal heart rate response to milk predicts expression of the stretch response. Physiology & Behavior. 51: 833-7. PMID 1594682 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(92)90123-J  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Behavioral response of altricial and precocial rodent fetuses to acute umbilical cord compression. Behavioral and Neural Biology. 57: 93-102. PMID 1586357 DOI: 10.1016/0163-1047(92)90581-N  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Prenatal experience with milk: fetal behavior and endogenous opioid systems. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 16: 351-64. PMID 1528524 DOI: 10.1016/S0149-7634(05)80205-2  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Fundamental motor patterns of the mammalian fetus. Journal of Neurobiology. 23: 1574-600. PMID 1487750 DOI: 10.1002/neu.480231013  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Hoeltzel TC, Cooke KM, Umphress SM, Smotherman WP, Murrish DE. Oral capture and grasping of an artificial nipple by rat fetuses. Developmental Psychobiology. 25: 543-55. PMID 1487080 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420250802  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. The emergence of behavioral regulation during fetal development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 662: 53-83. PMID 1456639 DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb22854.x  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Opioid control of the fetal stretch response: implications for the first suckling episode. Behavioral Neuroscience. 106: 866-73. PMID 1445662 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.106.5.866  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Dimethyl disulfide mimics the effects of milk on fetal behavior and responsiveness to cutaneous stimuli. Physiology & Behavior. 52: 761-5. PMID 1409950 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(92)90411-T  0.96
1992 Andersen SL, Gazzara RA, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Effect of milk on dopamine release in the newborn rat: an in vivo microdialysis study. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 68: 286-8. PMID 1394974 DOI: 10.1016/0165-3806(92)90073-6  0.96
1992 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Kappa opioid mediation of fetal responses to milk. Behavioral Neuroscience. 106: 396-407. PMID 1317189 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.106.2.396  0.96
1992 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Motor competition in the prenatal ontogeny of species-typical behaviour Animal Behaviour. 44: 89-99. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80758-4  0.96
1991 Shen Y, Isaacson RL, Smotherman WP. The behavioral and anatomical effects of prenatal umbilical cord clamping in the rat and their alteration by the prior maternal administration of nimodipine. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 3: 11-22. PMID 21551629 DOI: 10.3233/RNN-1991-3102  0.96
1991 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Conditioned activation of fetal behavior. Physiology & Behavior. 50: 73-7. PMID 1946734 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(91)90500-N  0.96
1991 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR, Ronca AE, Alberts JR, Hepper PG. Heart rate response of the rat fetus and neonate to a chemosensory stimulus. Physiology & Behavior. 50: 47-52. PMID 1946730 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(91)90496-B  0.96
1991 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. The amniotic sac as scaffolding: prenatal ontogeny of an action pattern. Developmental Psychobiology. 24: 463-85. PMID 1797592 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420240703  0.96
1991 Blass EM, Jackson AM, Smotherman WP. Milk-induced, opioid-mediated antinociception in rats at the time of cesarean delivery. Behavioral Neuroscience. 105: 677-86. PMID 1667730  0.96
1991 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Fetal learning: implications for the development of kin recognition Kin Recognition. 308-334.  0.96
1990 Kashinsky WM, Rozboril LW, Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. An inexpensive rotary infusion pump for delivering microliter volumes of fluids to animal subjects. Physiology & Behavior. 47: 1279-81. PMID 2395932 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(90)90383-F  0.96
1990 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Rat fetuses respond to chemical stimuli in gas phase. Physiology & Behavior. 47: 863-8. PMID 2388943 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(90)90010-2  0.96
1990 Robertson SS, Smotherman WP. The neural control of cyclic motor activity in the fetal rat (Rattus norvegicus). Physiology & Behavior. 47: 121-6. PMID 2326326 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(90)90049-A  0.96
1990 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Olfactory bulb transection alters fetal behavior after chemosensory but not tactile stimulation. Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 57: 175-80. PMID 2073718 DOI: 10.1016/0165-3806(90)90043-X  0.96
1989 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Cryptopsychobiology: the appearance, disappearance, and reappearance of a species-typical action pattern during early development. Behavioral Neuroscience. 103: 246-53. PMID 2706071 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.103.2.246  0.96
1988 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR, Robertson SS. Cyclic motor activity in the fetal rat (Rattus norvegicus). Journal of Comparative Psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983). 102: 78-82. PMID 3365946  0.96
1988 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Response of the rat fetus to acute umbilical cord occlusion: an ontogenetic adaptation? Physiology & Behavior. 44: 131-5. PMID 3237807 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(88)90356-3  0.96
1988 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Fetal expression of the leg extension response to anogenital stimulation. Physiology & Behavior. 43: 243-4. PMID 3212063 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(88)90246-6  0.96
1988 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Behavior of rat fetuses following chemical or tactile stimulation. Behavioral Neuroscience. 102: 24-34. PMID 2833290 DOI: 10.1037/0735-7044.102.1.24  0.96
1987 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Stereotypic behavioral response of rat fetuses to acute hypoxia is altered by maternal alcohol consumption. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 157: 982-6. PMID 3674174  0.96
1987 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR, La Vallee PA, Hennessy MB. Influences of the early olfactory environment on the survival, behavior and pituitary-adrenal activity of caesarean delivered preterm rat pups. Developmental Psychobiology. 20: 415-23. PMID 3609490 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420200406  0.96
1987 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Prenatal expression of species-typical action patterns in the rat fetus (Rattus norvegicus). Journal of Comparative Psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983). 101: 190-6. PMID 3608424  0.96
1987 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. Prenatal influences on development: behavior is not a trivial aspect of fetal life. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : Jdbp. 8: 171-6. PMID 3597784  0.96
1987 Robinson SR, Smotherman WP. Environmental determinants of behaviour in the rat fetus. II. The emergence of synchronous movement Animal Behaviour. 35: 1652-1662. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-3472(87)80058-1  0.96
1986 Smotherman WP, Woodruff KS, Robinson SR, Del Real C, Barron S, Riley EP. Spontaneous fetal behavior after maternal exposure to ethanol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 24: 165-70. PMID 3952106 DOI: 10.1016/0091-3057(86)90332-1  0.96
1986 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. A method for endoscopic visualization of rat fetuses in situ. Physiology & Behavior. 37: 663-5. PMID 3749332 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(86)90302-1  0.96
1986 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR, Miller BJ. A reversible preparation for observing the behavior of fetal rats in utero: spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Physiology & Behavior. 37: 57-60. PMID 3737724 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(86)90384-7  0.96
1986 Barron S, Riley EP, Smotherman WP. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on umbilical cord length in fetal rats. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 10: 493-5. PMID 3541671  0.96
1985 Smotherman WP, Robinson SR. The rat fetus in its environment: behavioral adjustments to novel, familiar, aversive, and conditioned stimuli presented in utero. Behavioral Neuroscience. 99: 521-30. PMID 3040034 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.99.3.521  0.96
1985 Smotherman WP. Glucocorticoid and other hormonal substrates of conditioned taste aversion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 443: 126-44. PMID 2990281  0.96
1984 Smotherman WP, Richards LS, Robinson SR. Techniques for observing fetal behavior in utero: a comparison of chemomyelotomy and spinal transection. Developmental Psychobiology. 17: 661-74. PMID 6510556 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420170608  0.96
1984 Babine AM, Smotherman WP. Uterine position and conditioned taste aversion. Behavioral Neuroscience. 98: 461-6. PMID 6329244 DOI: 10.1037//0735-7044.98.3.461  0.96
1984 Smotherman WP. Learning in the womb [3] Science. 225: 1093.  0.96
1983 Smotherman WP. Mother-infant interaction and the modulation of pituitary-adrenal activity in rat pups after early stimulation. Developmental Psychobiology. 16: 169-76. PMID 6873482 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420160303  0.96
1982 Smotherman WP. In utero chemosensory experience alters taste preferences and corticosterone responsiveness. Behavioral and Neural Biology. 36: 61-8. PMID 7168731 DOI: 10.1016/S0163-1047(82)90245-X  0.96
1982 Stickrod G, Kimble DP, Smotherman WP. Met-enkephalin effects on associations formed in utero. Peptides. 3: 881-3. PMID 7167399 DOI: 10.1016/0196-9781(82)90054-7  0.96
1982 Smotherman WP. Odor aversion learning by the rat fetus. Physiology & Behavior. 29: 769-71. PMID 6296892 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(82)90322-5  0.96
1982 Stickrod G, Kimble DP, Smotherman WP. In utero taste/odor aversion conditioning in the rat. Physiology & Behavior. 28: 5-7. PMID 6281819 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(82)90093-2  0.96
1981 Smotherman WP, Burt G, Kimble DP, Strickrod G, BreMiller R, Levine S. Behavioral and corticosterone effects in conditioned taste aversion following hippocampal lesions. Physiology & Behavior. 27: 569-74. PMID 7323158 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(81)90224-9  0.96
1981 Smotherman WP, Kolp LA, Coyle S, Levine S. Hippocampal lesion effects on conditioned taste aversion and pituitary-adrenal activity in rats. Behavioural Brain Research. 2: 33-48. PMID 7225218 DOI: 10.1016/0166-4328(81)90037-1  0.96
1980 Weinberg J, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Early handling effects on the intake of novel substances: differential behavioral and adrenocortical responses. Behavioral and Neural Biology. 29: 446-52. PMID 7447847  0.96
1980 Hart RP, Coover GD, Shnerson A, Smotherman WP. Plasma corticosterone elevations in rats in response to consumption of concentrated sugar solutions. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 94: 337-45. PMID 7365004  0.96
1980 Smotherman WP, Levine S. ACTH4--10 affects behavior but not plasma corticosterone levels in a conditioned taste aversion situation. Peptides. 1: 207-10. PMID 6262738 DOI: 10.1016/0196-9781(80)90055-8  0.96
1980 Burt GS, Smotherman WP. Amygdalectomy induced deficits in conditioned taste aversion: possible pituitary-adrenal involvement. Physiology & Behavior. 24: 651-5. PMID 6248911 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(80)90391-1  0.96
1980 Hennessy JW, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Investigations into the nature of the dexamethasone and ACTH effects upon learned taste aversion. Physiology & Behavior. 24: 645-9. PMID 6248910 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(80)90390-X  0.96
1980 Smotherman WP, Margolis A, Levine S. Flavor preexposures in a conditioned taste aversion situation: a dissociation of behavioral and endocrine effects in rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 94: 25-35. PMID 6246148 DOI: 10.1037/h0077643  0.96
1979 Kimble DP, Bremiller R, Schroeder L, Smotherman WP. Hippocampal lesions slow extinction of a conditioned taste aversion in rats. Physiology & Behavior. 23: 217-22. PMID 504406 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(79)90357-3  0.96
1979 Smotherman WP, Hunt LE, McGinnis LM, Levine S. Mother-infant separation in group-living rhesus macaques: a hormonal analysis. Developmental Psychobiology. 12: 211-7. PMID 108166 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420120304  0.96
1978 Weinberg J, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Early handling effects on neophobia and conditioned taste aversion. Physiology & Behavior. 20: 589-96. PMID 567356 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(78)90251-2  0.96
1978 Hennessy MB, Smotherman WP, Kolp LA, Hunt LE, Levine S. Stimuli from pups of adrenalectomized and malnourished female rats. Physiology & Behavior. 20: 509-13. PMID 567353 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(78)90239-1  0.96
1978 Levine S, Coe CL, Smotherman WP. Prolonged cortisol elevation in the infant squirrel monkey after reunion with mother. Physiology & Behavior. 20: 7-10. PMID 417356 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(78)90194-4  0.96
1978 Mendoza SP, Smotherman WP, Miner MT, Kaplan J, Levine S. Pituitary-adrenal response to separation in mother and infant squirrel monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology. 11: 169-75. PMID 416983 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420110209  0.96
1978 Coe CL, Mendoza SP, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Mother-infant attachment in the squirrel monkey: adrenal response to separation. Behavioral Biology. 22: 256-63. PMID 415729 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-6773(78)92305-2  0.96
1978 Smotherman WP, Levine S. ACTH effects on response suppression and plasma corticosterone in the mouse. Physiology & Behavior. 20: 503-7. PMID 210471 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(78)90238-X  0.96
1978 Smotherman WP, Levine S. ACTH and ACTH4-10 modification of neophobia and taste aversion responses in the rat. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 92: 22-33. PMID 203610 DOI: 10.1037/h0077453  0.96
1978 Smotherman WP, Bell RW, Hershberger WA, Coover GD. Orientation to rat pup cues: Effects of maternal experiential history Animal Behaviour. 26: 265-273. DOI: 10.1016/0003-3472(78)90027-1  0.96
1977 Smotherman WP, Mendoza SP, Levine S. Ontogenetic changes in pup-elicited maternal pituitary-adrenal activity: pup age and stage of lactation effects. Developmental Psychobiology. 10: 365-71. PMID 873067 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420100412  0.96
1977 Smotherman WP, Brown CP, Levine S. Maternal responsiveness following differential pup treatment and mother-pup interactions. Hormones and Behavior. 8: 242-53. PMID 863402 DOI: 10.1016/0018-506X(77)90041-1  0.96
1977 Brown CP, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Interaction-induced reduction in differential maternal responsiveness: an effect of cue-reduction or behavior? Developmental Psychobiology. 10: 273-80. PMID 863123 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420100311  0.96
1977 Wiener SG, Fitzpatrick KM, Levin R, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Alterations in the maternal behavior of rats rearing malnourished offspring. Developmental Psychobiology. 10: 243-54. PMID 863120 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420100308  0.96
1977 Smotherman WP, Wiener SG, Mendoza SP, Levine S. Maternal pituitary-adrenal responsiveness as a function of differential treatment of rat pups. Developmental Psychobiology. 10: 113-22. PMID 838156 DOI: 10.1002/dev.420100204  0.96
1977 Hennessy MB, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Early olfactory enrichment enhances later consumption of novel substances. Physiology & Behavior. 19: 481-3. PMID 613339 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(77)90221-9  0.96
1977 Hennessy MB, Harney KS, Smotherman WP, Coyle S, Levine S. Adrenalectomy-induced deficits in maternal retrieval in the rat. Hormones and Behavior. 9: 222-7. PMID 611075 DOI: 10.1016/0018-506X(77)90058-7  0.96
1977 Levine S, Smotherman WP, Hennessy JW. Pituitary-adrenal hormones and learned taste aversion. Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology. 17: 163-77. PMID 200076  0.96
1977 Smotherman WP, Hennessy JW, Levine S. Medial preoptic area knife cuts in the lactating female rat: Effects on maternal behavior and pituitary-adrenal activity Physiological Psychology. 5: 243-246. DOI: 10.3758/BF03335324  0.96
1976 Hunt LE, Smotherman WP, Wiener SG, Levine S. Nutritional variables and their effect on the development of ultrasonic vocalizations in rat pups. Physiology & Behavior. 17: 1037-9. PMID 14677604 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(76)90030-5  0.96
1976 Smotherman WP, Hennessy JW, Levine S. Plasma corticosterone levels as an index of the strength of illness induced taste aversions. Physiology & Behavior. 17: 903-8. PMID 14677580 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(76)90006-8  0.96
1976 Wiener SG, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Influence of maternal malnutrition on pituitary-adrenal responsiveness to offspring. Physiology & Behavior. 17: 897-901. PMID 14677579 DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(76)90005-6  0.96
1976 Smotherman WP, Hennessy JW, Levine S. Plasma corticosterone levels during recovery from LiCl produced taste aversions. Behavioral Biology. 16: 401-12. PMID 962706 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-6773(76)91555-8  0.96
1976 Smotherman WP, Wiener SG, Mendoza SP, Levine S. Pituitary--adrenal responsiveness of rat mothers to noxious stimuli and stimuli produced by pups. Ciba Foundation Symposium. 5-25. PMID 204458  0.96
1976 Kendler K, Hennessy JW, Smotherman WP, Levine S. An ACTH effect on recovery from conditioned taste aversion. Behavioral Biology. 17: 225-9. PMID 183654 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-6773(76)90512-5  0.96
1976 Hennessy JW, Smotherman WP, Levine S. Conditioned taste aversion and the pituitary-adrenal system. Behavioral Biology. 16: 413-24. PMID 183642 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-6773(76)91571-6  0.96
1974 Smotherman WP, Bell RW, Starzec J, Elias J, Zachman TA. Maternal responses to infant vocalizations and olfactory cues in rats and mice. Behavioral Biology. 12: 55-66. PMID 4429513 DOI: 10.1016/S0091-6773(74)91026-8  0.96
1972 Vaughter RM, Smotherman W, Ordy JM. Development of object permanence in the infant squirrel monkey Developmental Psychology. 7: 34-38. DOI: 10.1037/h0032693  0.96
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