Dean L Urban - Publications

Affiliations: 
1988-1989 Environmental Sciences University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 

98 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2019 Walker NJ, Schaffer-Smith D, Swenson JJ, Urban DL. Improved connectivity analysis using multiple low-cost paths to evaluate habitat for the endangered San Martin titi monkey (Plecturocebus oenanthe) in north-central Peru Landscape Ecology. 34: 1859-1875. DOI: 10.1007/S10980-019-00837-4  0.01
2019 Blaszczak JR, Delesantro JM, Zhong Y, Urban DL, Bernhardt ES. Watershed urban development controls on urban streamwater chemistry variability Biogeochemistry. 144: 61-84. DOI: 10.1007/S10533-019-00572-7  0.01
2018 Lopez BE, Urban D, White PS. Testing the effects of four urbanization filters on forest plant taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic diversity. Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. PMID 30312519 DOI: 10.1002/Eap.1812  0.24
2018 Lovette JP, Duncan JM, Smart LS, Fay JP, Olander LP, Urban DL, Daly N, Blackwell J, Hoos AB, García AM, Band LE. Leveraging Big Data Towards Functionally-Based, Catchment Scale Restoration Prioritization. Environmental Management. PMID 30171327 DOI: 10.1007/S00267-018-1100-Z  0.01
2018 Qiu J, Game ET, Tallis H, Olander LP, Glew L, Kagan JS, Kalies EL, Michanowicz D, Phelan J, Polasky S, Reed J, Sills EO, Urban D, Weaver SK. Evidence-Based Causal Chains for Linking Health, Development, and Conservation Actions. Bioscience. 68: 182-193. PMID 29988312 DOI: 10.1093/Biosci/Bix167  0.12
2018 Forester BR, Lasky JR, Wagner HH, Urban DL. Comparing methods for detecting multilocus adaptation with multivariate genotype-environment associations. Molecular Ecology. PMID 29633402 DOI: 10.1111/Mec.14584  0.01
2018 Lopez BE, Urban D, White PS. Nativity and seed dispersal mode influence species’ responses to habitat connectivity and urban environments Global Ecology and Biogeography. 27: 1017-1030. DOI: 10.1111/Geb.12760  0.01
2018 Hassett BA, Sudduth EB, Somers KA, Urban DL, Violin CR, Wang S, Wright JP, Cory RM, Bernhardt ES. Pulling apart the urbanization axis: patterns of physiochemical degradation and biological response across stream ecosystems Freshwater Science. 37: 653-672. DOI: 10.1086/699387  0.01
2018 Baruch EM, Voss KA, Blaszczak JR, Delesantro J, Urban DL, Bernhardt ES. Not all pavements lead to streams: variation in impervious surface connectivity affects urban stream ecosystems Freshwater Science. 37: 673-684. DOI: 10.1086/699014  0.01
2018 Olander LP, Johnston RJ, Tallis H, Kagan J, Maguire LA, Polasky S, Urban D, Boyd J, Wainger L, Palmer M. Benefit relevant indicators: Ecosystem services measures that link ecological and social outcomes Ecological Indicators. 85: 1262-1272. DOI: 10.1016/J.Ecolind.2017.12.001  0.01
2018 Xi W, Peet RK, Lee MT, Urban DL. Hurricane disturbances, tree diversity, and succession in North Carolina Piedmont forests, USA Journal of Forestry Research. 30: 219-231. DOI: 10.1007/S11676-018-0813-4  0.01
2018 Blaszczak JR, Delesantro JM, Urban DL, Doyle MW, Bernhardt ES. Scoured or suffocated: Urban stream ecosystems oscillate between hydrologic and dissolved oxygen extremes Limnology and Oceanography. 64: 877-894. DOI: 10.1002/Lno.11081  0.01
2017 Hakkenberg CR, Peet RK, Urban DL, Song C. Modeling plant composition as community-continua in a forest landscape with LiDAR and hyperspectral remote sensing. Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. PMID 29024180 DOI: 10.1002/Eap.1638  0.8
2017 Belote RT, Dietz MS, McKinley PS, Carlson AA, Carroll C, Jenkins CN, Urban DL, Fullman TJ, Leppi JC, Aplet GH. Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate. Bioscience. 67: 494-497. PMID 28584341 DOI: 10.1093/Biosci/Bix028  0.01
2017 Austin KG, Lee ME, Clark C, Forester BR, Urban DL, White L, Kasibhatla PS, Poulsen JR. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon Environmental Research Letters. 12: 014005. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/Aa5437  0.01
2016 Somers KA, Bernhardt ES, Mcglynn BL, Urban DL. Downstream Dissipation of Storm Flow Heat Pulses: A Case Study and its Landscape-Level Implications Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 52: 281-297. DOI: 10.1111/1752-1688.12382  1
2016 Schwartz NB, Urban DL, White PS, Moody A, Klein RN. Vegetation dynamics vary across topographic and fire severity gradients following prescribed burning in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Forest Ecology and Management. 365: 1-11. DOI: 10.1016/J.Foreco.2016.01.027  0.01
2015 Wilson RS, Hardisty DJ, Epanchin-Niell RS, Runge MC, Cottingham KL, Urban DL, Maguire LA, Hastings A, Mumby PJ, Peters DP. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems. Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society For Conservation Biology. PMID 26390368 DOI: 10.1111/Cobi.12632  0.01
2015 Austin KG, Kasibhatla PS, Urban DL, Stolle F, Vincent J. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Plos One. 10: e0127963. PMID 26011182 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0127963  0.01
2015 Austin KG, Kasibhatla PS, Urban DL, Stolle F, Vincent J. Reconciling oil palm expansion and climate change mitigation in Kalimantan, Indonesia Plos One. 10. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127963  1
2014 Urban D. On Scale and Pattern Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 95: 124-125. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9623-95.2.26  0.01
2013 Somers KA, Bernhardt ES, Grace JB, Hassett BA, Sudduth EB, Wang S, Urban DL. Streams in the urban heat island: Spatial and temporal variability in temperature Freshwater Science. 32: 309-326. DOI: 10.1899/12-046.1  1
2013 Trainor AM, Walters JR, Urban DL, Moody A. Evaluating the effectiveness of a safe harbor program for connecting wildlife populations Animal Conservation. 16: 610-620. DOI: 10.1111/Acv.12035  1
2013 Sexton JO, Urban DL, Donohue MJ, Song C. Long-term land cover dynamics by multi-temporal classification across the Landsat-5 record Remote Sensing of Environment. 128: 246-258. DOI: 10.1016/J.Rse.2012.10.010  1
2012 Poor EE, Loucks C, Jakes A, Urban DL. Comparing Habitat Suitability and Connectivity Modeling Methods for Conserving Pronghorn Migrations Plos One. 7. PMID 23166656 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0049390  1
2012 Thorne LH, Johnston DW, Urban DL, Tyne J, Bejder L, Baird RW, Yin S, Rickards SH, Deakos MH, Mobley JR, Pack AA, Chapla Hill M. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Plos One. 7: e43167. PMID 22937022 DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0043167  1
2011 Schick RS, Halpin PN, Read AJ, Urban DL, Best BD, Good CP, Roberts JJ, LaBrecque EA, Dunn C, Garrison LP, Hyrenbach KD, McLellan WA, Pabst DA, Palka DL, Stevick P. Community structure in pelagic marine mammals at large spatial scales Marine Ecology Progress Series. 434: 165-181. DOI: 10.3354/Meps09183  1
2011 Stephenson NL, van Mantgem PJ, Bunn AG, Bruner H, Harmon ME, O'Connell KB, Urban DL, Franklin JF. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates Ecological Monographs. 81: 527-555. DOI: 10.1890/10-1077.1  0.01
2011 Stephenson NL, Van Mantgem PJ, Bunn AG, Bruner H, Harmon ME, O'Connell KB, Urban DL, Franklin JF. Causes and implications of the correlation between forest productivity and tree mortality rates Ecological Monographs. 81: 527-555. DOI: 10.1890/10-1077.1  1
2011 Lookingbill TR, Rocca ME, Urban DL. Focused assessment of scale-dependent vegetation pattern Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology: Concepts and Applications. 111-138. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-7390-0_7  1
2010 Minor E, Urban D. Forest bird communities across a gradient of urban development Urban Ecosystems. 13: 51-71. DOI: 10.1007/S11252-009-0103-1  1
2009 Urban DL, Minor ES, Treml EA, Schick RS. Graph models of habitat mosaics. Ecology Letters. 12: 260-73. PMID 19161432 DOI: 10.1111/J.1461-0248.2008.01271.X  0.96
2008 Minor ES, Urban DL. A graph-theory framework for evaluating landscape connectivity and conservation planning Conservation Biology. 22: 297-307. PMID 18241238 DOI: 10.1111/J.1523-1739.2007.00871.X  1
2008 Xi W, Peet RK, Urban DL. Changes in forest structure, species diversity and spatial pattern following hurricane disturbance in a Piedmont North Carolina forest, USA Journal of Plant Ecology. 1: 43-57. DOI: 10.1093/Jpe/Rtm003  0.01
2008 Xi W, Peet RK, Decoster JK, Urban DL. Tree damage risk factors associated with large, infrequent wind disturbances of Carolina forests Forestry. 81: 317-334. DOI: 10.1093/Forestry/Cpn020  1
2008 Minor ES, McDonald RI, Treml EA, Urban DL. Uncertainty in spatially explicit population models Biological Conservation. 141: 956-970. DOI: 10.1016/J.Biocon.2007.12.032  1
2008 Treml EA, Halpin PN, Urban DL, Pratson LF. Modeling population connectivity by ocean currents, a graph-theoretic approach for marine conservation Landscape Ecology. 23: 19-36. DOI: 10.1007/S10980-007-9138-Y  1
2007 Minor ES, Urban DL. Graph theory as a proxy for spatially explicit population models in conservation planning Ecological Applications. 17: 1771-1782. PMID 17913139 DOI: 10.1890/06-1073.1  1
2007 Maun JD, Sunderland PB, Urban DL. Thin-filament pyrometry with a digital still camera. Applied Optics. 46: 483-8. PMID 17230239 DOI: 10.1364/Ao.46.000483  0.01
2007 Goslee SC, Urban DL. TheecodistPackage for Dissimilarity-based Analysis of Ecological Data Journal of Statistical Software. 22. DOI: 10.18637/Jss.V022.I07  0.01
2007 Hierl LA, Loftin CS, Longcore JR, McAuley DG, Urban DL. A multivariate assessment of changes in wetland habitat for waterbirds at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge, Maine, USA Wetlands. 27: 141-152. DOI: 10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27[141:Amaoci]2.0.Co;2  1
2007 McDonald RI, Halpin PN, Urban DL. Monitoring succession from space: A case study from the North Carolina Piedmont Applied Vegetation Science. 10: 193-203. DOI: 10.1111/J.1654-109X.2007.Tb00517.X  0.01
2007 Gardner RH, Urban DL. Neutral models for testing landscape hypotheses Landscape Ecology. 22: 15-29. DOI: 10.1007/S10980-006-9011-4  1
2006 McDonald RI, Urban DL. Spatially varying rules of landscape change: Lessons from a case study Landscape and Urban Planning. 74: 7-20. DOI: 10.1016/J.Landurbplan.2004.08.005  1
2006 McDonald RI, Urban DL. Edge effects on species composition and exotic species abundance in the North Carolina Piedmont Biological Invasions. 8: 1049-1060. DOI: 10.1007/S10530-005-5227-5  1
2006 Urban DL, McDonald RI, Minor ES, Treml EA. Causes and consequences of land use change in the north carolina piedmont: the scope of uncertainty Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology: Methods and Applications. 239-257. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-4663-4_13  1
2005 Goslee SC, Niering WA, Urban DL, Christensen NL. Influence of environment, history and vegetative interactions on stand dynamics in a Connecticut forest1 Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 132: 471-482. DOI: 10.3159/1095-5674(2005)132[471:Ioehav]2.0.Co;2  0.08
2005 Keitt TH, Urban DL. SCALE-SPECIFIC INFERENCE USING WAVELETS Ecology. 86: 2497-2504. DOI: 10.1890/04-1016  0.01
2005 Urban DL. MODELING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES ACROSS SCALES Ecology. 86: 1996-2006. DOI: 10.1890/04-0918  0.01
2005 Bunn AG, Graumlich LJ, Urban DL. Trends in twentieth-century tree growth at high elevations in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountains, USA The Holocene. 15: 481-488. DOI: 10.1191/0959683605Hl827Rp  0.01
2005 Lookingbill TR, Urban DL. Gradient analysis, the next generation: Towards more plant-relevant explanatory variables Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35: 1744-1753. DOI: 10.1139/X05-109  1
2005 Wiersma YF, Urban DL. Beta diversity and nature reserve system design in the Yukon, Canada Conservation Biology. 19: 1262-1272. DOI: 10.1111/J.1523-1739.2005.00099.X  1
2005 Taverna K, Urban DL, McDonald RI. Modeling landscape vegetation pattern in response to historic land-use: A hypothesis-driven approach for the North Carolina Piedmont, USA Landscape Ecology. 20: 689-702. DOI: 10.1007/S10980-004-5652-3  1
2005 Pierce KB, Lookingbill T, Urban D. A simple method for estimating potential relative radiation (PRR) for landscape-scale vegetation analysis Landscape Ecology. 20: 137-147. DOI: 10.1007/S10980-004-1296-6  1
2005 Goslee SC, Niering WA, Urban DL, Christensen NL. Influence of environment, history and vegetative interactions on stand dynamics in a Connecticut forest Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society. 132: 471-482.  1
2004 MCDonald RI, Urban DL. FOREST EDGES AND TREE GROWTH RATES IN THE NORTH CAROLINA PIEDMONT Ecology. 85: 2258-2266. DOI: 10.1890/03-0313  0.01
2004 Lookingbill T, Urban D. An empirical approach towards improved spatial estimates of soil moisture for vegetation analysis Landscape Ecology. 19: 417-433. DOI: 10.1023/B:Land.0000030451.29571.8B  1
2004 King RS, Richardson CJ, Urban DL, Romanowicz EA. Spatial dependency of vegetation-environment linkages in an anthropogenically influenced wetland ecosystem Ecosystems. 7: 75-97. DOI: 10.1007/S10021-003-0210-4  1
2003 McDonald RI, Peet RK, Urban DL. Spatial pattern of Quercus regeneration limitation and Acer rubrum invasion in a Piedmont forest Journal of Vegetation Science. 14: 441-450. DOI: 10.1658/1100-9233(2003)014[0441:Spoqrl]2.0.Co;2  1
2003 McDonald R, Peet R, Urban D. Spatial pattern of Quercus regeneration limitation and Acer rubrum invasion in a Piedmont forest Journal of Vegetation Science. 14: 441. DOI: 10.1658/1100-9233(2003)014[0441:SPOQRL]2.0.CO;2  0.01
2003 Arge L, Chase JS, Halpin P, Toma L, Vitter JS, Urban D, Wickremesinghe R. Efficient flow computation on massive grid terrain datasets Geoinformatica. 7: 283-313. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025526421410  1
2003 Lookingbill TR, Urban DL. Spatial estimation of air temperature differences for landscape-scale studies in montane environments Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 114: 141-151. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00196-X  1
2002 Urban D, Goslee S, Pierce K, Lookingbill T. Extending community ecology to landscapes éCoscience. 9: 200-212. DOI: 10.1080/11956860.2002.11682706  0.01
2002 Kintsch JA, Urban DL. Focal species, community representation, and physical proxies as conservation strategies: A case study in the Amphibolite Mountains, North Carolina, U.S.A Conservation Biology. 16: 936-947. DOI: 10.1046/J.1523-1739.2002.00542.X  1
2001 Goldmeer JS, Urban DL, Yuan ZG. Measurement of gas-phase temperatures in flames with a point-diffraction interferometer. Applied Optics. 40: 4816-23. PMID 18360522  0.01
2001 Urban D, Keitt T. Landscape connectivity: A graph-theoretic perspective Ecology. 82: 1205-1218. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[1205:Lcagtp]2.0.Co;2  1
2001 Urban D, Keitt T. LANDSCAPE CONNECTIVITY: A GRAPH-THEORETIC PERSPECTIVE Ecology. 82: 1205-1218. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[1205:LCAGTP]2.0.CO;2  0.01
2001 Acevedo MF, Pamarti S, Ablan M, Urban DL, Mikler A. Modeling Forest Landscapes: Parameter Estimation from Gap Models over Heterogeneous Terrain Simulation. 77: 53-68. DOI: 10.1177/003754970107700104  0.01
2001 Acevedo MF, Ablan M, Urban DL, Pamarti S. Estimating parameters of forest patch transition models from gap models Environmental Modelling and Software. 16: 649-658. DOI: 10.1016/S1364-8152(01)00034-2  1
2000 Urban DL. USING MODEL ANALYSIS TO DESIGN MONITORING PROGRAMS FOR LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Ecological Applications. 10: 1820-1832. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1820:Umatdm]2.0.Co;2  0.01
2000 Miller C, Urban DL. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF FIRE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES ON SIERRA NEVADA MIXED-CONIFER FORESTS Ecological Applications. 10: 85-94. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0085:Mteofm]2.0.Co;2  0.01
2000 Schick RS, Urban DL. Spatial components of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) distribution in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 57: 2193-2200. DOI: 10.1139/F00-196  0.01
2000 Urban DL, Miller C, Halpin PN, Stephenson NL. Forest gradient response in Sierran landscapes: The physical template Landscape Ecology. 15: 603-620. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008183331604  1
2000 Miller C, Urban DL. Landscape Ecology. 15: 145-154. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008181313360  0.01
2000 Bunn AG, Urban DL, Keitt TH. Landscape connectivity: A conservation application of graph theory Journal of Environmental Management. 59: 265-278. DOI: 10.1006/Jema.2000.0373  1
1999 Miller C, Urban DL. Interactions between forest heterogeneity and surface fire regimes in the southern Sierra Nevada Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 29: 202-212. DOI: 10.1139/X98-188  0.01
1999 Miller C, Urban DL. A model of surface fire, climate and forest pattern in the Sierra Nevada, California Ecological Modelling. 114: 113-135. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00119-7  0.01
1999 Miller C, Urban DL. Forest Pattern, Fire, and Climatic Change in the Sierra Nevada Ecosystems. 2: 76-87. DOI: 10.1007/S100219900060  0.01
1999 Hansen AJ, Urban DL. Avian response to landscape pattern: the role of species' life histories Ncasi Technical Bulletin. 218. DOI: 10.1007/Bf00133308  1
1997 Keitt TH, Urban DL, Milne BT. Detecting critical scales in fragmented landscapes Ecology and Society. 1. DOI: 10.5751/Es-00015-010104  1
1996 Acevedo MF, Urban DL, Shugart HH. Models of forest dynamics based on roles of tree species Ecological Modelling. 87: 267-284. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3800(94)00208-8  1
1996 Weishampel J, Urban D. Coupling a spatially-explicit forest gap model with a 3-D solar routine to simulate latitudinal effects Ecological Modelling. 86: 101-111. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3800(94)00201-0  0.01
1995 Sarr MG, Felty CL, Hilmer DM, Urban DL, O'connor G, Hall BA, Rooke TW, Jensen MD. Technical and Practical Considerations Involved in Operations on Patients Weighing More Than 270 kg Archives of Surgery. 130: 102-105. PMID 7802568 DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.1995.01430010104022  0.01
1995 Acevedo MF, Urban DL, Ablan M. Transition and gap models of forest dynamics Ecological Applications. 5: 1040-1055. DOI: 10.2307/2269353  1
1995 Acevedo MF, Urban DL, Ablan M. Transition and Gap Models of Forest Dynamics Ecological Applications. 5: 1040-1055. DOI: 10.2307/2269353  0.01
1995 Hansen AJ, Garman SL, Weigand JF, Urban DL, McComb WC, Raphael MG. Alternative Silvicultural Regimes in the Pacific Northwest: Simulations of Ecological and Economic Effects Ecological Applications. 5: 535-554. DOI: 10.2307/1941965  0.01
1994 Urban DL. Global Changes and Everything Ecology. 75: 1521-1522. DOI: 10.2307/1937481  0.01
1993 Hansen AJ, Garman SL, Marks B, Urban DL. An Approach for Managing Vertebrate Diversity Across Multiple-Use Landscapes. Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America. 3: 481-496. PMID 27759253 DOI: 10.2307/1941917  0.72
1993 Voris PV, Millard WD, Thomas J, Urban D. TERRA-Vision—the integration of scientific analysis into the decision-making process International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 7: 143-164. DOI: 10.1080/02693799308901947  0.64
1993 Lauenroth WK, Urban DL, Coffin DP, Parton WJ, Shugart HH, Kirchner TB, Smith TM. Modeling vegetation structure-ecosystem process interactions across sites and ecosystems Ecological Modelling. 67: 49-80. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3800(93)90099-E  1
1993 Levine ER, Ranson KJ, Smith JA, Williams DL, Knox RG, Shugart HH, Urban DL, Lawrence WT. Forest ecosystem dynamics: linking forest succession, soil process and radiation models Ecological Modelling. 65: 199-219. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3800(93)90080-C  1
1993 Coffin DP, Urban DL. Implications of natural history traits to system-level dynamics: comparisons of a grassland and a forest Ecological Modelling. 67: 147-178. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3800(93)90003-B  1
1993 Urban DL, Harmon ME, Halpern CB. Potential response of pacific northwestern forests to climatic change, effects of stand age and initial composition Climatic Change. 23: 247-266. DOI: 10.1007/Bf01091618  1
1992 Weishampel JF, Urban DL, Shugart HH, Smith JBJ. Semivariograms from a forest transect gap model compared with remotely sensed data Journal of Vegetation Science. 3: 521-526. DOI: 10.2307/3235808  0.01
1991 Urban DL, Bonan GB, Smith TM, Shugart HH. Spatial applications of gap models Forest Ecology and Management. 42: 95-110. DOI: 10.1016/0378-1127(91)90067-6  1
1990 Bonan GB, Shugart HH, Urban DL. The sensitivity of some high-latitude boreal forests to climatic parameters Climatic Change. 16: 9-29. DOI: 10.1007/Bf00137344  1
1989 Urban DL, Smith TM. Microhabitat pattern and the structure of forest bird communities American Naturalist. 133: 811-829. DOI: 10.1086/284954  1
1988 Smith TM, Urban DL. Scale and resolution of forest structural pattern Vegetatio. 74: 143-150. DOI: 10.1007/Bf00044739  1
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