James Mark Baldwin, Ph.D.

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 
"James Baldwin"

James Mark Baldwin was among the first in the United States to study the normal development of children. Among his lasting contributions to the field was his idea about an infant's imitation. He argued that early imitative movements were the basis for early learning. The infant imitated a pleasurable event in order to continue the pleasure.

A second idea that got attention, both then and now, is Baldwin's notion of learning being inherited. This is now called the "Baldwin effect". Baldwin argued in this case that a learned behavior, such as circular reaction, may, in some cases become instinctive.


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James McCosh research assistant 1884 Princeton
 (Baldwin was never a grad student of Wilhelm Wundt. He sat in on some lectures and served as a subject to some of Wundt's student for one semester)
Friedrich Paulsen grad student (Theology Tree)
Wilhelm Wundt post-doc 1884-1886 University of Leipzig (Neurotree)
 (Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Mark_Baldwin and Ben-David, J., & Collins, R. (1966). Social factors in the origins of a new science: The case of psychology. American Sociological Review, 31, 451-465. https://dx.doi.org/doi:10.2307/2090769)
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Baldwin JM, Cattell JM. (1896) ON CRITICISMS OF ORGANIC SELECTION. Science (New York, N.Y.). 4: 724-7
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