James Mark Baldwin, Ph.D.
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James Mark Baldwin was among the first in the United States to study the normal development of children. Among his lasting contributions to the field was his idea about an infant's imitation. He argued that early imitative movements were the basis for early learning. The infant imitated a pleasurable event in order to continue the pleasure.
A second idea that got attention, both then and now, is Baldwin's notion of learning being inherited. This is now called the "Baldwin effect". Baldwin argued in this case that a learned behavior, such as circular reaction, may, in some cases become instinctive.