Hazel Markus - Publications

Psychology Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 
Social psychology, cultural psychology

103 high-probability publications. We are testing a new system for linking publications to authors. You can help! If you notice any inaccuracies, please sign in and mark papers as correct or incorrect matches. If you identify any major omissions or other inaccuracies in the publication list, please let us know.

Year Citation  Score
2019 Clobert M, Sims TL, Yoo J, Miyamoto Y, Markus HR, Karasawa M, Levine CS. Feeling excited or taking a bath: Do distinct pathways underlie the positive affect-health link in the U.S. and Japan? Emotion (Washington, D.C.). PMID 30676038 DOI: 10.1037/emo0000531  0.52
2018 Miyamoto Y, Yoo J, Levine CS, Park J, Boylan JM, Sims T, Markus HR, Kitayama S, Kawakami N, Karasawa M, Coe CL, Love GD, Ryff CD. Culture and social hierarchy: Self- and other-oriented correlates of socioeconomic status across cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. PMID 29771553 DOI: 10.1037/pspi0000133  1
2018 Kitayama S, Park J, Miyamoto Y, Date H, Boylan JM, Markus HR, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Coe CL, Love GD, Ryff CD. Behavioral Adjustment Moderates the Link Between Neuroticism and Biological Health Risk: A U.S.-Japan Comparison Study. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 146167217748603. PMID 29380686 DOI: 10.1177/0146167217748603  1
2017 Markus HR, Stephens NM. Editorial overview: Inequality and social class: The psychological and behavioral consequences of inequality and social class: a theoretical integration. Current Opinion in Psychology. 18: iv-xii. PMID 29174920 DOI: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.11.001  1
2017 Savani K, Stephens NM, Markus HR. Choice as an engine of analytic thought. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General. 146: 1234-1246. PMID 28846005 DOI: 10.1037/xge0000351  1
2016 Levine CS, Miyamoto Y, Markus HR, Rigotti A, Boylan JM, Park J, Kitayama S, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Coe CL, Love GD, Ryff CD. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. PMID 27516421 DOI: 10.1177/0146167216658645  1
2016 Yeager DS, Walton GM, Brady ST, Akcinar EN, Paunesku D, Keane L, Kamentz D, Ritter G, Duckworth AL, Urstein R, Gomez EM, Markus HR, Cohen GL, Dweck CS. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID 27247409 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1524360113  1
2016 Markus HR. What moves people to action? Culture and motivation Current Opinion in Psychology. 8: 161-166. DOI: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.028  1
2015 Brannon TN, Markus HR, Taylor VJ. "Two souls, two thoughts," two self-schemas: double consciousness can have positive academic consequences for African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 108: 586-609. PMID 25844575 DOI: 10.1037/a0038992  0.36
2015 Ryff CD, Miyamoto Y, Boylan JM, Coe CL, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Kan C, Love GD, Levine C, Markus HR, Park J, Kitayama S. Culture, inequality, and health: evidence from the MIDUS and MIDJA comparison. Culture and Brain. 3: 1-20. PMID 25750852 DOI: 10.1007/s40167-015-0025-0  1
2015 Kitayama S, Park J, Boylan JM, Miyamoto Y, Levine CS, Markus HR, Karasawa M, Coe CL, Kawakami N, Love GD, Ryff CD. Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: an examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Psychological Science. 26: 211-20. PMID 25564521 DOI: 10.1177/0956797614561268  0.36
2015 Stephens NM, Brannon TN, Markus HR, Nelson JE. Feeling at home in college: Fortifying school-relevant selves to reduce social class disparities in higher education Social Issues and Policy Review. 9: 1-24. DOI: 10.1111/sipr.12008  0.36
2014 Curhan KB, Levine CS, Markus HR, Kitayama S, Park J, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Love GD, Coe CL, Miyamoto Y, Ryff CD. Subjective and Objective Hierarchies and Their Relations to Psychological Well-Being: A U.S/Japan Comparison. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 5: 855-864. PMID 25530829 DOI: 10.1177/1948550614538461  1
2014 Riemer H, Shavitt S, Koo M, Markus HR. Preferences don't have to be personal: expanding attitude theorizing with a cross-cultural perspective. Psychological Review. 121: 619-48. PMID 25347311 DOI: 10.1037/a0037666  1
2014 Curhan KB, Sims T, Markus HR, Kitayama S, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Love GD, Coe CL, Miyamoto Y, Ryff CD. Just how bad negative affect is for your health depends on culture. Psychological Science. 25: 2277-80. PMID 25304884 DOI: 10.1177/0956797614543802  1
2014 Fu AS, Markus HR. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 40: 739-749. PMID 24727812 DOI: 10.1177/0146167214524992  1
2014 Conner AL, Cook KS, Correll SJ, Markus HR, Moss-Racusin CA, Muller CB, Raymond JL, Simard C. Obscuring gender bias with "choice". Science (New York, N.Y.). 343: 1200. PMID 24626914 DOI: 10.1126/science.343.6176.1200-a  1
2014 Stephens NM, Markus HR, Phillips LT. Social class culture cycles: how three gateway contexts shape selves and fuel inequality. Annual Review of Psychology. 65: 611-34. PMID 24079532 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115143  1
2014 Kan C, Kawakami N, Karasawa M, Love GD, Coe CL, Miyamoto Y, Ryff CD, Kitayama S, Curhan KB, Markus HR. Psychological resources as mediators of the association between social class and health: comparative findings from Japan and the USA. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 21: 53-65. PMID 23242835 DOI: 10.1007/s12529-012-9249-y  1
2013 Park J, Kitayama S, Markus HR, Coe CL, Miyamoto Y, Karasawa M, Curhan KB, Love GD, Kawakami N, Boylan JM, Ryff CD. Social status and anger expression: the cultural moderation hypothesis. Emotion (Washington, D.C.). 13: 1122-31. PMID 24098926 DOI: 10.1037/a0034273  1
2013 Miyamoto Y, Boylan JM, Coe CL, Curhan KB, Levine CS, Markus HR, Park J, Kitayama S, Kawakami N, Karasawa M, Love GD, Ryff CD. Negative emotions predict elevated interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 34: 79-85. PMID 23911591 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2013.07.173  1
2013 Hamedani MG, Markus HR, Fu AS. In the land of the free, interdependent action undermines motivation. Psychological Science. 24: 189-96. PMID 23302297 DOI: 10.1177/0956797612452864  1
2013 Savani K, Alvarez A, Mesquita B, Markus HR. Feeling close and doing well: the prevalence and motivational effects of interpersonally engaging emotions in Mexican and European American cultural contexts. International Journal of Psychology : Journal International De Psychologie. 48: 682-94. PMID 22731253 DOI: 10.1080/00207594.2012.688131  1
2013 Park J, Kitayama S, Karasawa M, Curhan K, Markus HR, Kawakami N, Miyamoto Y, Love GD, Coe CL, Ryff CD. Clarifying the links between social support and health: culture, stress, and neuroticism matter. Journal of Health Psychology. 18: 226-35. PMID 22419414 DOI: 10.1177/1359105312439731  1
2013 Stephens NM, Fryberg SA, Markus HR, Hamedani MG. Who Explains Hurricane Katrina and the Chilean Earthquake as an Act of God? The Experience of Extreme Hardship Predicts Religious Meaning-Making Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 44: 606-619. DOI: 10.1177/0022022112454330  1
2013 Brannon TN, Markus HR. Social Class and Race: Burdens but Also Some Benefits of Chronic Low Rank Psychological Inquiry. 24: 97-101. DOI: 10.1080/1047840X.2013.794102  1
2012 Stephens NM, Markus HR, Fryberg SA. Social class disparities in health and education: reducing inequality by applying a sociocultural self model of behavior. Psychological Review. 119: 723-44. PMID 23088339 DOI: 10.1037/a0029028  1
2012 Plaut VC, Markus HR, Treadway JR, Fu AS. The cultural construction of self and well-being: a tale of two cities. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 38: 1644-58. PMID 22988054 DOI: 10.1177/0146167212458125  1
2012 Stephens NM, Fryberg SA, Markus HR, Johnson CS, Covarrubias R. Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 102: 1178-97. PMID 22390227 DOI: 10.1037/a0027143  1
2012 Townsend SS, Fryberg SA, Wilkins CL, Markus HR. Being mixed: who claims a biracial identity? Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology. 18: 91-6. PMID 22250901 DOI: 10.1037/a0026845  1
2012 Boiger M, Mesquita B, Tsai AY, Markus H. Influencing and adjusting in daily emotional situations: a comparison of European and Asian American action styles. Cognition & Emotion. 26: 332-40. PMID 21707271 DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2011.572422  1
2012 Fryberg SA, Stephens NM, Covarrubias R, Markus HR, Carter ED, Laiduc GA, Salido AJ. How the Media Frames the Immigration Debate: The Critical Role of Location and Politics Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy. 12: 96-112. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-2415.2011.01259.x  1
2012 Stephens NM, Townsend SSM, Markus HR, Phillips LT. A cultural mismatch: Independent cultural norms produce greater increases in cortisol and more negative emotions among first-generation college students Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 48: 1389-1393. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.07.008  1
2012 Savani K, Markus HR. A processing advantage associated with analytic perceptual tendencies: European Americans outperform Asians on multiple object tracking Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 48: 766-769. DOI: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.01.005  1
2011 Karasawa M, Curhan KB, Markus HR, Kitayama SS, Love GD, Radler BT, Ryff CD. Cultural perspectives on aging and well-being: a comparison of Japan and the United States. International Journal of Aging & Human Development. 73: 73-98. PMID 21922800 DOI: 10.2190/AG.73.1.d  1
2011 Savani K, Stephens NM, Markus HR. The unanticipated interpersonal and societal consequences of choice: victim blaming and reduced support for the public good. Psychological Science. 22: 795-802. PMID 21537057 DOI: 10.1177/0956797611407928  1
2011 Hamedani MG, Markus HR, Fu AS. My nation, my self: divergent framings of America influence American selves. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 37: 350-64. PMID 21307177 DOI: 10.1177/0146167211398139  1
2011 Coe CL, Love GD, Karasawa M, Kawakami N, Kitayama S, Markus HR, Tracy RP, Ryff CD. Population differences in proinflammatory biology: Japanese have healthier profiles than Americans. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 25: 494-502. PMID 21112385 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2010.11.013  1
2011 Stephens NM, Fryberg SA, Markus HR. When choice does not equal freedom: A sociocultural analysis of agency in working-class American contexts Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2: 33-41. DOI: 10.1177/1948550610378757  1
2010 Markus HR, Kitayama S. Cultures and Selves: A Cycle of Mutual Constitution. Perspectives On Psychological Science : a Journal of the Association For Psychological Science. 5: 420-30. PMID 26162188 DOI: 10.1177/1745691610375557  1
2010 Kitayama S, Karasawa M, Curhan KB, Ryff CD, Markus HR. Independence and interdependence predict health and wellbeing: divergent patterns in the United States and Japan. Frontiers in Psychology. 1: 163. PMID 21833228 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00163  1
2010 Savani K, Markus HR, Naidu NV, Kumar S, Berlia N. What counts as a choice? U.S. Americans are more likely than Indians to construe actions as choices. Psychological Science. 21: 391-8. PMID 20424076 DOI: 10.1177/0956797609359908  1
2010 Aron A, Ketay S, Hedden T, Aron EN, Rose Markus H, Gabrieli JD. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 5: 219-26. PMID 20388694 DOI: 10.1093/scan/nsq028  1
2010 Dimaggio P, Markus HR. Culture and social psychology: Converging perspectives Social Psychology Quarterly. 73: 347-352. DOI: 10.1177/0190272510389010  1
2010 Markus HR, Schwartz B. Does choice mean freedom and well-being? Journal of Consumer Research. 37: 344-355. DOI: 10.1086/651242  1
2009 Uchida Y, Townsend SS, Rose Markus H, Bergsieker HB. Emotions as within or between people? Cultural variation in lay theories of emotion expression and inference. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin. 35: 1427-39. PMID 19745200 DOI: 10.1177/0146167209347322  1
2009 Stephens NM, Hamedani MG, Markus HR, Bergsieker HB, Eloul L. Why did they "choose" to stay? Perspectives of Hurricane Katrina observers and survivors. Psychological Science. 20: 878-86. PMID 19538433 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02386.x  1
2009 Townsend SSM, Markus HR, Bergsieker HB. My choice, your categories: The denial of multiracial identities Journal of Social Issues. 65: 185-204. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2008.01594.x  1
2008 Markus HR. Pride, prejudice, and ambivalence: toward a unified theory of race and ethnicity. The American Psychologist. 63: 651-70. PMID 19014214 DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.8.651  1
2008 Savani K, Markus HR, Conner AL. Let your preference be your guide? Preferences and choices are more tightly linked for North Americans than for Indians. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 95: 861-76. PMID 18808264 DOI: 10.1037/a0011618  1
2008 Davies PG, Steele CM, Markus HR. A nation challenged: the impact of foreign threat on America's tolerance for diversity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 95: 308-18. PMID 18665704 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.95.2.308  1
2008 Lee SS, Mountain J, Koenig B, Altman R, Brown M, Camarillo A, Cavalli-Sforza L, Cho M, Eberhardt J, Feldman M, Ford R, Greely H, King R, Markus H, Satz D, et al. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics. Genome Biology. 9: 404. PMID 18638359 DOI: 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-404  1
2008 Hedden T, Ketay S, Aron A, Markus HR, Gabrieli JD. Cultural influences on neural substrates of attentional control. Psychological Science. 19: 12-7. PMID 18181784 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02038.x  1
2008 Fryberg SA, Markus HR, Oyserman D, Stone JM. Of warrior chiefs and Indian princesses: The psychological consequences of American Indian mascots Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 30: 208-218. DOI: 10.1080/01973530802375003  1
2008 Markus HR. Hazel Rose Markus: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions American Psychologist. 63: 648-650. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.8.648  1
2008 Minow M, Shweder RA, Markus HR. Pursuing equal education in societies of difference Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference. 3-18.  1
2008 Minow M, Shweder RA, Markus HR. Just Schools: Pursuing equality in societies of difference Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference. 1-300.  1
2008 Markus HR. Identity matters: Ethnicity, race, and the American dream Just Schools: Pursuing Equality in Societies of Difference. 63-98.  1
2007 Stephens NM, Markus HR, Townsend SS. Choice as an act of meaning: the case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 93: 814-30. PMID 17983302 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.5.814  1
2007 Fryberg SA, Markus HR. Cultural models of education in American Indian, Asian American and European American contexts Social Psychology of Education. 10: 213-246. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-007-9017-z  1
2006 Markus HR, Uchida Y, Omoregie H, Townsend SS, Kitayama S. Going for the gold. Models of agency in Japanese and American contexts. Psychological Science. 17: 103-12. PMID 16466417 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01672.x  1
2005 Snibbe AC, Markus HR. You can't always get what you want: educational attainment, agency, and choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 88: 703-20. PMID 15796669 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.88.4.703  1
2005 Markus HR. On telling less than we can know: The too tacit wisdom of social psychology Psychological Inquiry. 16: 180-184. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli1604_08  1
2004 Kitayama S, Snibbe AC, Markus HR, Suzuki T. Is there any "free" choice? Self and dissonance in two cultures. Psychological Science. 15: 527-33. PMID 15270997 DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00714.x  1
2004 Markus HR. Culture and personality: Brief for an arranged marriage Journal of Research in Personality. 38: 75-83. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2003.09.008  1
2003 Markus HR, Kitayama S. Models of agency: sociocultural diversity in the construction of action. Nebraska Symposium On Motivation. Nebraska Symposium On Motivation. 49: 1-57. PMID 14569670  1
2003 Franks MM, Holmberg D, Herzog AR, Markus HR. Self-complexity: Linking age and education with self-rated health and depression Hallym International Journal of Aging. 5: 91-110. DOI: 10.2190/1AVP-BVMB-T6P5-F5PA  1
2003 Snibbe AC, Kitayama S, Markus HR, Suzuki T. They saw a game: A Japanese and American (Football) Field Study Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 34: 581-595. DOI: 10.1177/0022022103256480  1
2003 Markus HR, Kitayama S. Culture, Self, and the Reality of the Social Psychological Inquiry. 14: 277-283.  1
2002 Plaut VC, Markus HR, Lachman ME. Place matters: consensual features and regional variation in American well-being and self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 83: 160-84. PMID 12088124 DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.83.1.160  1
2002 Snibbe AC, Markus HR. The psychology of religion and the religion of psychology Psychological Inquiry. 13: 229-234.  1
2001 Adams G, Markus HR. Culture as patterns: An alternative approach to the problem of reification Culture and Psychology. 7: 283-296.  1
2001 Kanagawa C, Cross SE, Markus HR. "Who am I?" The cultural psychology of the conceptual self Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 27: 90-103.  1
2000 Markus HR, Steele CM, Steele DM. Colorblindness as a barrier to inclusion: Assimilation and nonimmigrant minorities Daedalus. 129: 233-259.  1
2000 Kitayama S, Markus HR, Kurokawa M. Culture, emotion, and well-being: Good feelings in Japan and the United States Cognition and Emotion. 14: 93-124.  1
1999 Heine SJ, Lehman DR, Markus HR, Kitayama S. Is there a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychological Review. 106: 766-94. PMID 10560328  1
1999 Kim H, Markus HR. Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 77: 785-800. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.77.4.785  1
1998 Regula Herzog A, Markus HR, Franks MM, Holmberg D. Activities and well-being in older age: Effects of self-concept arid educational attainment Psychology and Aging. 13: 179-185. PMID 9640579 DOI: 10.1037/0882-7974.13.2.179  1
1998 Stein KF, Roeser R, Markus HR. Self-Schemas and Possible Selves as Predictors and Outcomes of Risky Behaviors in Adolescents Nursing Research. 47: 96-106. PMID 9536193 DOI: 10.1097/00006199-199803000-00008  1
1998 Keough KA, Markus HR. On Being Well: The Role of the Self in Building the Bridge from Philosophy to Biology Psychological Inquiry. 9: 49-56.  1
1998 Markus HR, Kitayama S. The cultural psychology of personality Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 29: 63-87.  1
1997 Kitayama S, Matsumoto H, Markus HR, Norasakkunkit V. Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the united states and self-criticism in Japan Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 72: 1245-1267. PMID 9177018  1
1996 Markus H, Kitayama S, VandenBos GR. The mutual interactions of culture and emotion Psychiatric Services. 47: 225-226. PMID 8820543  1
1996 Stein KF, Markus HR. The role of the self in behavioral change Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 6: 349-384.  1
1994 Cross SE, Markus HR. Self-Schemas, Possible Selves, and Competent Performance Journal of Educational Psychology. 86: 423-438.  1
1992 Josephs RA, Markus HR, Tafarodi RW. Gender and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 63: 391-402. PMID 1403622  1
1992 Markus HR, Kitayama S. The What, Why and How of Cultural Psychology: A Review of Shweder's Thinking Through Cultures Psychological Inquiry. 3: 357-364. DOI: 10.1207/s15327965pli0304_19  1
1991 Cross S, Markus H. Possible selves across the life span Human Development. 34: 230-255. DOI: 10.1159/000277058  1
1991 Markus HR, Kitayama S. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation Psychological Review. 98: 224-253.  1
1990 Oyserman D, Markus HR. Possible selves and delinquency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 59: 112-25. PMID 2213484 DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.41.9.954  1
1990 Markus H. Unresolved issues of self-representation Cognitive Therapy and Research. 14: 241-253. DOI: 10.1007/BF01176212  1
1987 Pietromonaco PR, Manis J, Markus H. The relationship of employment to self-perception and well-being in women: A cognitive analysis Sex Roles. 17: 467-477. DOI: 10.1007/BF00288148  1
1986 Markus H, Kunda Z. Stability and Malleability of the Self-Concept Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 51: 858-866. PMID 3783430 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.4.858  1
1985 Pietromonaco PR, Markus H. The Nature of Negative Thoughts in Depression Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 48: 799-807. PMID 3989670 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.48.3.799  1
1985 Markus H, Smith J, Moreland RL. Role of the Self-Concept in the Perception of Others Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 49: 1494-1512. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.49.6.1494  1
1982 Crane M, Markus H. Gender identity: The benefits of a self-schema approach Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 43: 1195-1197. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.43.6.1195  1
1982 Markus H, Crane M, Bernstein S, Siladi M. Self-schemas and gender Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 42: 38-50. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.42.1.38  1
1981 Markus H. The drive for integration: Some comments Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 17: 257-261. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(81)90026-3  1
1979 Zajonc RB, Markus H, Markus GB. The birth order puzzle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 37: 1325-41. PMID 501518 DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.8.1325  1
1978 Markus H. The effect of mere presence on social facilitation: An unobtrusive test Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 14: 389-397. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(78)90034-3  1
1977 Markus H. Self-schemata and processing information about the self Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 35: 63-78. DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.35.2.63  1
1974 Zajonc RB, Markus H, Wilson WR. Exposure effects and associative learning Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 10: 248-263. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1031(74)90071-7  1
1974 Zajonc RB, Markus H, Wilson WR. Exposure, object preference, and distress in the domestic chick Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 86: 581-585.  1
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